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Chapter XXV. British Small Breads: Hot-plate Goods- - - 153 

English Muffins — Recipe for Muffins — Coke Hot Heartfi — Gas Hot Plates — Steam- 
pipe Plates — English Crumpets — Scotch Pancakes — Scotch Crumpets— Girdle Scones 
— Sweet Milk Scones — Syrup Scones — Curled Oatcakes. 

Chapter XXVI. British Small Breads: Oven Goods - - - 160 

Oven-baked Soda Bread — Irish Soda Farl — Morning Rolls — Coffee-house Rolls — 
Rasped Rolls — Sponge for Rolls — Nursery Biscuits — Old-style Dinner Rolls — Scotch 
Breakfast Roll or Bap — Irish Baps — Short Process for Baps — Sandwich Baps — York- 
shire Teacakes — Scotch Teacakes— Pulled Bread. 

Chapter XXVII. British Special and Fancy Breads - - - 165 

Definitions of Fancy Bread — Effects of Loose Definition in England — Compounded 
Breads — Allowable Additions to Bread — Effects of Added Milk or Butter — Confusion 
of Bread Names — Windsor or Castle Loaf — Relative Prices of Fancy and Plain Bread 
— Iron Box for Batch Bread — Straight Dough for Windsors — Limerick Cottage Bread 
— Jenny Lind Loaf — Prevention of Blisters and Holes — Linds from Sponge and 
Dough — Scotch French Loaf — Different Methods of Baking in East and West Scot- 
land — Holes in French Loaves — Rumpy Loaf — Strong Egg Wash — Scotch Coburg — 
Cut Designs on Loaves — Fancy Pan Loaves — Greasing Bread. 

Chapter XXVIII. Harvest Festival Bread 172 

Harvest Festival Bread — Making a Wheatsheaf — Wheat Ears — Making Straws — 
Sheaf Band — Long Harvest Loaf — Printing on Bread. 

Chapter XXIX. Milk Bread 175 

Milk Bread — Faults in Bread made wholly with Milk — Skim Milk Defects — Recipe 
for Milk Bread — Shapes of Milk Bread — Rich Milk Bread — Dried Milk. 

Chapter XXX. Currant and Sultana Bread 178 

Currant Bread — Mixed Fruit Loaf — Rich Fruit Loaf — Special Fruit Loaf — Eggs in 
Bread — Salt in Sweet Loaves — Barm Brak — Irish Fruit Loaves — Scotch Bun Loaves 
— Covering for Bun Loaves — Scotch Currant Bun — Blocking Buns — Baking Timfes 
for Buns — Mixed Spice for Buns. 



Chapter XXXI. Hand-made Hard Biscuits 182 

Hand-made Biscuits — Nature of Flour for Biscuits — French, English, and Scotch 
Flour — What makes Biscuits spring — Use of Aerating Agents in Biscuits — Ship 
Biscuit — How to make Biscuit Dough — Rolling or Braking Dough — When Dough 
cracks — Biscuit-cutting Machine — To know when Biscuits are Baked — Drying to pre- 
vent Mould — Water or Cheese Biscuits — Yeast in Biscuits — Cabin Biscuits — Cupped 
Biscuits — Abernethy Biscuits — Aerating Agents in Biscuits — Greasy Dough — Glasgow 
Abernethy Biscuits — Effects of Excessive Fat in Dough — Bath Oliver Biscuits, Fer- 
mented — Mode of Handling — Bath Olivers, Unfermented — Seed Biscuits— Butter 
Shorts — Cracknels — Boiling Process — Cooling and Soaking — Baking Cracknels — 
Ginger Biscuits — Rice Biscuits — Parliament Cakes: Old Method — Parleys: New 
Method — Baking and Keeping — Scotch Parkins. 

Chapter XXXH. Medicinal and Invalid Bread - - - - 188 

Toast for Indigestion — Tops and Bottoms — English Rusks — To Prevent Crumbling 
and Blisters — Malt Extract in Rusks — German and Dutch Rusks — Mode of Making 
Rusks in Germany, &c. — Why Diabetics need Gluten Bread — Preparing Crude Gluten 
for Bread — Use of Starchy Sediment — Moulding Gluten Loaves — Toasting Gluten 
Bread — Disadvantages of using Fresh Gluten — Why Gluten is allowed to Lie— Rich 
Gluten Bread — How to Handle Gluten — Time Gluten Rolls take to Bake — Yeast of 
no Value in Gluten Bread — Size of 3-oz. Gluten Roll — Gluten and Almond Biscuits 
— Bran Biscuits — Rich Almond Cakes — Spurious Gluten Flour — Test for Starch in 
Gluten Flour — Babies' Food — Effects of Baking Flour — Method of Baking Flour, 

Chapter XXXIII. British Vienna Bread: Moulding of Rolls - 192 

French and German Rolls — German Method — Real Vienna Rolls — Flour for Vienna 
Rolls — Sponge for Rolls — Hungarian Flour — Size of Rolls — Bun-divider — Method of 
Proving — Fancy Shapes — Rolls from Straight Dough — True Vienna Bread — Soft 
Rolls — To Mould Kaisers — Number of Points in Kaiser Roll — Cause of Bad Finish — 
How Experts Mould — To Mould Shells — How to Prove and Bake Shells — Crescents 
— How to Prepare Dough — Size of Sheet for Horse Shoe — Moulding Horse Shoes — 
Finish of Horse Shoe — Moulding Cannons — Purpose of Using Cloths — Must not be 
Wetted with Steam. 

Chapter XXXIV. British Vienna Bread: Glazing and Baking - 203 

Glazing Rolls — Water-saturated Atmosphere — Effect of Temperature on Saturation 
Point — Condensation caused by Cold Dough — At what Baking Stage Glazing is 
effected — Why Glazing is difficult in an Ordinary Oven — Boiling Water supplies In- 
sufficient Steam — Heat of Steam under Pressure — Heat of Ordinary and Pressure 
Steam when released — Condition of Glazing in Oven — Why Pressure Steam glazes 
Bread — How to Glaze in Ordinary Oven — Position of Steam Pipes in Oven — Time 
Rolls are Baked — Why Rolls become Soft and Tough — Draw-plate Oven for Vienna 
Bread — Washing with Water — Vienna Oven — Quantity of Steam Needed — Egg 
Glaze for Rolls — Preparing Egg Wash — Why Baked on Tins — Character of Egg- 
glazed Rolls — Cheap Wash for Bread — Preparing Starch Wash — Why Rolls become 
Streaky — Starch Glaze compared with Steam — Steaming under Covers — Glazing in 
Boxes — How to Prepare Rolls for Steam Boxes. 

Chapter XXXV. Continental Vienna Bread 210 

Fashion in Continental Bread — Perfection of Vienna Bread — The Emperor-King's 
Baker — Kaisersemmel — The Mundsemmel — Recipe for Semmel Dough — Proving 
Temperature for Rolls — Influence of Quality of Flour on Rolls — Vienna Yeast — 
Ferment with Vienna Yeast — Method of Mixing and Kneading Dough— South 


German Methods — Butter in Rolls — The Wecken Roll — German Wecken Roll — 
Water Wecken and Milk Wecken — Laibel Roll — Kipfel Roll — Dresden Hornchen — 
Seed Rolls— Bretzel— Salt Flavour of Rolls. 

Chapter XXXVI. Continental Common Bread: Belgian, French, 

AND German 214 

Continental Common Bread — Belgian Millers and French Bounties — Smuggling Bread 
on Belgian Frontier. 

Belgian Bread: Belgian Miners and Good Bread. 

French Bread: Shapes of French Bread — Prices of Paris Bread — French Rye 

German Bread: German Rye Bread — Kniippel Rolls — Pumpernickel — Rhenish 
Blackbread — Milling Rye Flour. 

Chapter XXXVII. Continental Common Bread: Dutch Bread - 219 

Dutch Method of Bread-making — Quantities of Yeast and Salt — Method of Knead- 
ing — Low Temperature of Dough — Knip Brood — German or Papped Bread — 
"English" Bread — Dutch Household Bread — Schootyes Bread — Soft Rolls — Dutch 
Rye Bread — Oven for Rye Bread — Dutch Fancy Bread — Currant Bread — Christmas 
Bread — Swedish Rye Bread — Dutch Karlsbad Salt Sticks — Tea Sticks. 

Chapter XXXVIII. Yeast Foods and Stimulants: Bread-improvers 224 

Nature of Yeast discovered — Functions of Yeast in Dough — Essentials of Yeast Food 
— Why Yeast Foods are used in Dough — Function of Yeast Food — Common Yeast 
Foods — No Need for a Yeast Food. 

Potatoes: Composition of Potatoes — Nature of Nitrogenous Matter in Potatoes — 
Potato Starch — Danger of Disease in Potatoes, and Rope in the Bread. 

Scalded Flour : Scalded Flour as Yeast Food — Experiments on Scalded Flour. 

Cane Sugar and Glucose: Effects of Excessive Sugar on Gluten. 

Rye Flour: Rye Flour and its Action — Composition of Rye and Wheat Flour 

Germ and Malt Culms : Method of Using Germ— Malt Culms. 

Chapter XXXIX. Bread-improvers 232 

Malt Flour and Malt Extract : Preparation of Malt — Malt and Barley compared 
— Composition of Malt Proteins — Composition of Malt Extracts — Test for Malt 

Milk : Milk as Yeast Food— Milk Sugar— Composition of Dried Milk. 

Chapter XL. Chemical Aerating Agents: Soda, Pearlash, etc. - 236 

First Aerating Agents — Liebig Powder — Gas produced by Aerating Agents — Sources 
of Sodium Bicarbonate and Pearlash— Result of heating Sodium Bicarbonate — Effects 
of Washing Soda on Flour- Sour Milk and Soda — Use of Pearlash in Gingerbread, 
&c. — Alum and Pearlash used — Why Gingerbread Aerates when Dough is kept — 
Salt produced by Chemicals— Testing Strength of Acid. 



Chapter XLL Chemical Aerating Agents: Baking Powders, etc. - 240 

Tartrate Powders: Tartaric Acid and Soda — Soda and Cream of Tartar — Im- 
purities in Tartrate Powders. 

Alum Powders : Test for Alum in Powders — Residues of Sulphate Powders. t 

Phosphate Powders : Properties of Phosphate Powders. 

Ammonia Powders : Ammonia Compounds — General Test for Aerating Agents. 

Other Methods of Aeration: Dauglish Aeration Method — Raising Properties of 
Eggs — Egg Substitutes for Aerating Purposes — Raising Powers of Yolk of Egg — Fat 
as an Aerating Agent — Why Puff Paste rises — Action of Fat in Short Paste. 

Chapter XLII. Bakers' Fats: Butter 246 

General Properties of Fats — Action of Heat on Fats — Rancidity and its Cause — 
Neutrality of Pure Oils — Chemical Composition of Oils — Hydrolysis of Fats — 
Saponification of Fats— Action of Alkali on Fat in Baking — Basis of Different Fats — 
Physical Properties of Bakers' Fats — Why Fats are used by the Baker. 

Butter: Chemical Composition of Butter — Water in Butter — Milk-blended Butter — 
Composition of Butter Fat — Influence of Curd in Butter — Colouring of Butter — 
Cause of Flavour — Commercial Value of Butter — Adulterants in Butter — Butter 
Analysis — Moisture — Salt — Curd or Casein — Foreign Fats — Valenta's Test — Micro- 
scopic Test for Butter — Preservatives — Test for Boric Acid — Test for Salicylic Acid 
— Test for Formalin — Test for Fluorides in Butter — Renovated Butter — Clarified 
Butter — General Composition of Edible Fats. 

Chapter XLIII. Bakers' Fats: Margarine, Lard, etc. - - - 253 

Margarine: Butter Substitutes— Animal Fat Extraction — Vegetable Oils in Use — 
Method of Margarine Manufacture — Constituents in Margarine — Average Com- 
position of Margarine — Nature of Fatty Acids in Margarine — Keeping Properties of 
Margarine— Test for Margarine. 

Vegetable Butters. 

Lard : Grades of Lard — Properties of Lard — " Refined " Lard, &c. — Lard Substitutes. 

Artificial Suets. 

Chocolate Fats and Cocoa Butter Substitutes. 

Chapter XLIV. Edible Oils 257 

Olive Oil: Adulteration of Olive Oil — Tests for Adulterants. 

Almond Oil. 

Arachis Oil. 

Cotton-seed Oil : Cotton Stearin — Becchi's Test. 

Maize or Corn Oil. 

Sesame Oil : Baudouin's Test for Sesame Oil. 

Rape or Colza Oil. 

CocoANUT Oil : Butter Properties of Cocoanut Oil 

Palm-nut Oil. 

Palm Oil. 



Chapter XLV. Sugars and Saccharine Materials: Cane and Beet 

Sugar - - - - 263 

Sources of Sugar — Sucroses and Glucoses — Changes from Cane Sugar to Glucose. 

Cane and Beet Sugar: Commercial Sugars— Cane Sugar — Molasses — Foot Sugar — 
Raw Sugar — Moist Sugars — Beet Sugar — Sugar-refining — Rough Test for Yellow 
Crystals — Loaf and Cube Sugars — Granulated Sugar — Pieces Sugar — Test for Ultra- 
marine Colouring — Golden Syrup — Testing Sugars — Barley Sugar — Test for Sugar 
Strength — Proximate Composition of Sugars. 

Chapter XLVI. Sugars and Saccharine Materials: Other Sugars 

and Sugar Substitutes . . 270 

Other Disaccharide Sugars: Sorghum — Maple Sugar — Malt Sugar — Milk Sugar. 

Glucose and Levulose: Starch Sugar — Levulose — Composition of Honey. 

Other Sweetening Substances: Glycerin — Artificial Sweetening Substances — 
Saccharin — Action of Saccharin on Enzymes and Ferments — Dulcin — Glucin. 

Chapter XLVII. Eggs - - - - 275 

Eggs as Aerating Agents — Chemical Composition of Eggs — Proportions of Parts of 
Eggs — To Detect Age of Eggs — White of Egg — Action of Fats and Sugar on Egg 
Whites — Weak Eggs — Yolk of Egg — Methods of Preserving Eggs — Water Glass — 
Dried Eggs — Composition of Dried Eggs — Eggs Preserved in Syrup — To Keep Eggs 
Left Over. 

Chapter XL VIII. Egg Substitutes - - 281 

Egg Powders — Commercial Albumen — Gelatin — Casein — Separated Gluten. 

Chapter XLIX. Flavouring Substances: Spices and Seeds - - 283 

Spices: Classification of Flavouring Agents — Adulteration of Spices — Ginger — Ex- 
hausted Ginger — Ginger Starch — Cinnamon — Cassia — Cloves — Adulteration of 
Ground Cloves — Pimento — Nutmeg and Mace — Adulteration of Mace. 

Arom.\tic Seeds : Aniseed — Coriander Seed — Caraway Seed — Fennel. 

Chapter L. Essences and Essential Oils 287 

Essences and Oils — Essential Oils —Adulteration of Essential Oils — Oil of Lemon — 
Flavouring Agent in Lemon — Essence of Lemon — Oil of Orange — Lemon-grass Oil — 
Citronella Oil — Oil of Peppermint — Essence of Peppermint — Flower Essences — 
Essential Oils from Spices — Oil of Bitter Almonds — Prussic Acid in Almonds — 
Artificial Oil of Almonds — Dangerous Substitute for Oil of Almonds — Nitrobenzene 
— Ratafia and Kirsch — Vanilla Beans — Vanillin in Vanilla Beans — Artificial Produc- 
tion of Vanillin — Vanilla Extract — Tonka Beans — Artificial Coumarin — Use of 
Vanilla — Vanillons. 

Chapter LI. Liqueurs and Fruit Essences 294 

Liqueur Flavourings — Cura^oa — Maraschino— Benedictine — Chartreuse — Angostura 
— Creme de Menthe. 

Fruit Essences: Nature of Fruit Essences— Pineapple Essence — Pear Essence — 
Apple Essence — Composition of Fruit Essences — Real Fruit Flavours — Table for 
Compounding Fruit Essences — Butter Flavour. 




Chapter LII. Fermented Buns 296 

The old Cook Confectioners — Old-time Biscuit Bakers — Place of the Pastry Cook — 
Public Taste Altered — Biscuit Bakers Crushed Out — Modern Flour Confectioner — 
Mixture of Trades — The Bun — Influence of Flour in Buns — Strong Flour Mellowed 
— Kansas and Australian Flour for Buns — Hungarian Flour for Rich Buns — Purpose 
of Ferment Stage — Use of Ferment in Bun-making — Straight-Dough Buns — Thin 
versus Thick Ferments — Proper Quantity of Flour in Ferment — Temperature for 
Ferments — Sugar in Ferment — Sugar not a Yeast-producer — Aerating Bun Ferment 
— Eggs in Ferment — Effects of Excessive Fat — Mixing Fat or Melting — Cause of Fat 
affecting Fermentation — Effects of Oil or Fat on Yeast — Effects of Excessive Sugar — 
General Basis for Buns — Eggs not Necessary — Flavour of Buns — Salt in Buns — Plain 
Buns — Bun Washes — Sugar Wash. 

Currant Buns: Making the Ferment — Making Dough and Proving — Baking Tem- 
perature for Buns — Prepared Egg Wash — Syrup for Egg Wash — Method of Flipping 
when in Proof — Rich Penny Bun — Royal Currant Bun — Clarified Butter in Buns. 

Mince Buns. 

Lemon Tea Buns : Lemon-shaped Buns. 

Swiss Buns : Water Icing for Buns. 

Bath Buns : Cheap Bath or London Buns — Fermented Bath Buns — Rich Restaurant 
Bun — Method of Mixing Bath Buns — Imperial Bath Bun — Cause of Bath Buns 

Jam Buns : Blocks for Biins — Baking Jam Buns. 

Hot Cross Buns. 

Chelsea Buns : Method of Adding Butter, &c. — Baking Chelseas. 

Dough Nuts: Ring Dough Nuts— Test for Heat of Fat — Burnt Fat— American 




A Confectioner's Artistic Tea Room (Colmired) - - - Frontispiece 

Types of British Small Bread 162 

Types of Scotch and Fancy Bread (Coloured) - - - - 168 

Harvest Festival Loaves - - - 172 

Milk Bread 174 

Toast and Milk Bread - - - 176 

Former Presidents, National Association of Master Bakers - 184 

Thomas Fletcher. Alfred Taylor. 

Robert Kirkland. Henry Matthews. 

British Vienna Rolls (Coloured) 192 

Vienna Fancy Bread— I - - - 200 

Do. do. —II - 204 

Do. do. —Ill ' - - - 208 

Do. do. —IV 212 

Do. do. —V 214 

French and Dutch Bread 218 

Types of Dutch Bread 220 

Representatives of the Glasgow Baking Trade - - - 242 

Sir William Bilsland, Bart. John Stevenson, 

James Macfarlane. William Beattie. 

Leaders in the Educational Movement of the Allied Trades 264 

Alexanher G. Wylie. Adam L. Johnston. 

Charles H. Paul. James D. Graham. 

Spice Plants (Coloured) - 286 

Fermented Buns 304 





In all parts of the kingdom there are certain kinds of small bread which 

find special favour. These are not so essentially different in the materials 

from which thev are made as in the shape and condition ^ ,.,,.«. 

. 1 1 T-i T 1 n- English Muffins, 

or the crust. Among such small goods the English 7)iujjin 

may be first noticed. At one time these were sold by nearly every baker 
who professed to make small goods, especially in the winter months, but 
the art of manufacture has now been almost lost to the general trade, and 
has been specialized, so that muffin-baking has become a distinct trade, the 
ordinary baker buying daily supplies on wholesale terms. Muffins are 
essentially old-fashioned fare, and custom has now so much changed that 
they are not regarded as essentials on the tea tables of the present genera- 
tion. This change of custom is responsible for the change in the trade. 
The ordinary baker sells so few that it is not worth his while to keep a 
hot plate for their manufacture. In provincial centres, and especially in 
country towns, the trade is still to a great extent in the hands of the 
ordinary baker, and considerable difficulty is frequently experienced in 
making them of the required lightness and the proper degree of holeyness. 

The following recipe and instructions will be found easy and safe. 
Weigh down 3 lb. of moderately soft flour and sift through it ^ oz. of 
bicarbonate of soda. Mix IJ oz. yeast with 1 qt. of water at Recipe for 
105'' F., and mix the flour into a tough batter and stand in a Muffins, 
warm place for an hour or until the batter has risen and dropped; f oz. 
of salt powdered is then stirred in until the batter is again toughened, 
and it is allowed to lie for 15 to 20 minutes more. Meanwhile f oz. 
of cream of tartar is dissolved in about a gill of milk and gently mixed 
in the batter. It is then ready for dropping on the hot plate. The bad 
results so frequently obtained are generally due to the method of cooking. 
If the batter is in the least degree too stiff" the muffins are certain to be 
" blind ". The same result follows if the flour is too strong, especially in 
the case when the flour is stronger than that with which one is familiar. 
It is better always to try one muffin first before filling the hot plate. Then 
if that fails to hole properly add a little more water or milk, or if it is too 
thin and has no substance, but runs out under the rings, a little flour may 
be added, but it is better if possible to avoid these additions after the 
batter is ready. The hot plate should be very hot and thoroughly well 
cleaned but not greased. The rings should be greased and placed in 
position on the plate and the same quantity of batter dropped in each with 
a small mould or ladle. As soon as the exposed part is covered with holes 
the rings are lifted off*, and with a palette knife the muffins are turned and 
baked on the holey side. They should be golden-brown on the side first 
towards the plate, but only browned enough on the holey side to remove 

f Vol. I. 20 




the sickly appearance they have when quite white. When done they 
should be light but tough, and although sufficiently cooked it is not 
intended that they should be eaten without previous toasting. In a good 
many districts picklets is the name given to what are called mujjins in 

There are now a good many types of hot plates on the market as 
compared with ten or twelve years ago. The old hot hearth was a thick 
Coke Hot ""o^^ plate, under which there was a long coke fire that required 
Hearth. a good deal of care if the plate was to be kept evenly heated 
over its entire surface: and whatever care was exercised there were sure 

Fig. 11.— Coke Hot Plate 

to be differences of heat at any one baking, whilst the plate was always 
liable to become cool unexpectedly unless the fire was carefully watched. 
There are still a good many of these old-style plates in use, but a modified 
form has recently been patented by Mr. Smith of Edinburgh, in which the 
coke fire can be regulated at diflferent parts of the plate by means of 
dampers (fig. 11). This plate is said to give excellent results with a com- 
paratively small quantity of fuel; but where the quantity of hot-plate 
goods to be baked is small the ordinary gas hot plate (fig. 12) is much more 
convenient. This has a thin plate, and the heat is supplied as wanted by 
Gas Hot several rows of atmospheric burners placed a little distance under- 
Plates. neath. The advantages of the gas hot plate are, that it requires 
to be heated only a few minutes before it is required, and by means of 
one tap the amount of heat can be accurately regulated, whilst so long as 
the burners are clear the heat over the plate is comparatively uniform. 


The cost for heat is slightly greater than when a coke fire is used, but the 
cleanness and convenience more than compensate for this extra cost. The 

Fig. 12.— Gas Hot Plate 

most modern expedient for heating a large hot plate is by means of a series 
of sealed steam pipes (fig. 13), somewhat similar to those used in the steam- 

Fig. 13.— steam Hot Plate 

pipe oven. There is a very essential difference, however. In oven pipes 
the internal pressure can only be assumed from the heat regis- steam -pipe 
tered by the thermometer, but in the case of hot-plate pipes Plates, 
they are connected with an ordinary pressure gauge which shows the 


pressure of the contained steam, and which rings an alarm as soon as the 
danger point is reached. The good points about plates heated by this 
method are — that they cost little for fuel, are of almost uniform tempera- 
ture all over, can be easily regulated, and are capable of baking con- 
tinuously even when a large quantity of hot-plate goods is required. 

Muffins are usually associated in the public mind with crumpets, which 
are also hot-plate goods, but are different in almost every respect from the 
English muffins described above. Crumpets are thick, extremely light. 
Crumpets, fermented dough cakes that are not holey nor tough, and which 
can be eaten cold or hot as desired. For these cakes the following method 
may be used. Weigh 5 lb. moderately strong white flour. Make this 
into a very soft dough with 2 pt. water and 1 pt. milk, the temperature of 
both being 104° F.; 1 oz. salt, |- oz. sugar, and 2 oz. yeast. The dough 
should be made as tough as possible by much mixing on the table, and then 
placed in a warm place to prove for one hour. At the end of that period 
it is again kneaded thoroughly, the hands being kept free from the^ soft 
dough by dipping them from time to time in a little warm water. This 
dough is allowed to lie for another hour, and then divided into pieces about 
2 1 oz. each for single crumpets. The softness of the dough makes scaling 
of these pieces extremely awkward; so the usual method is to squeeze the 
dough through a ring made by the thumb and forefinger of one hand. This 
has the effect of producing a kind of round ball of dough, which is broken 
off when large enough by the other hand, and dropped on to a proving 
board very thickly covered with flour or cones. When this board is full 
it is best to cover it with a similar board, and the latter with a cloth, 
and put them in a warm place for about thirty minutes. In cold weather 
the proving board or drawer should itself be heated before the crumpets 
are placed on it. The pieces will spread slightly, but will still show a more 
or less rounded appearance when quite proved. They are baked on a plate 
only moderately warm, the side that was uppermost on the board being 
placed downward on the plate. When done on one side they are turned 
over on to the other. This expedient has the effect of making both sides 
of the crumpet about the same width when baked. It is not usual to bake 
these in rings, although this is sometimes done; and when that is the case, 
the rings are removed just after turning. The difficulty in baking these 
is the danger of their being underbaked in the centres, a condition likely 
to be produced if the plate is in the least degree too hot. When finished 
they should be about 3 in. in diameter and about 2 in. thick. They are 
sufficiently baked when an indent made g3ntly with the finger on the soft 
part of the side springs back and leaves no mark. It is possible to make 
crumpets with stift'er dough than here suggested, in that case scaling the 
pieces and rolling in the usual way as for buns; but it will be found that 
when made in that way, while light enough, they are not so light as those 
made from the soft toughened dough just described, nor is the texture 
so open and flaky as in the latter, a condition considered characteristic of 
cakes of this sort. 


Although hardly belonging to the bread section, it may be useful to 
describe here the method of making Scotch pancakes, which, though 
sweet and of richer colour, are not unlike English muffins in scotch 
size and shape; and also to describe a method for what are called Pancakes, 
crumpets in Scotland, although these have nothing in common with English 
crumpets except the name, but are an imitation of English pancakes as 
made in kitchens on Shrove Tuesday. Scotch pancakes and crumpets are 
hot-plate goods. In poor neighbourhoods, or where the size sold for a 
halfpenny must be large, the mixture used is necessarily cheap, although, 
when fresh, the pancakes are not bad to eat. For a very cheap mixture 
the following method may be used. Into 4 lb. soft flour sift 1 oz. soda and 
1| oz. cream of tartar, and beat into a batter with 2h pt. of buttermilk 
in which 1 lb. of soft sugar has been dissolved. Drop at once either from 
a small cup or a spoon on to the hot plate, previously well greased and 
moderately hot. While soft on the plate a few currants can be sprinkled 
on the top of each. As soon as the sides next the plate are coloured 
the cakes are turned over. When finished they should be about 4 in. in 
diameter and h in. thick, and both sides as nearly as possible the same 
breadth. Care has to be exercised to turn the cakes at the right time: if 
they are turned too soon they become much thicker in the centre than at the 
sides, and the centre is not sufficientljT^ baked, whilst if they are not turned 
soon enough the top is much narrower than the bottom and they are 
spoiled in appearance. In good neighbourhoods a much better mixture 
is desirable, and may be as follows. Weigh 5 lb. soft flour — Hungarian 
if available — and sift into it 1|^ oz. bicarbonate of soda and 3 oz. cream of 
tartar, 12 oz. lard, 1| lb. sugar, and 6 eggs. This will require 2f to 3 pt. 
either sweet or butter milk, but the exact quantity depends on the strength 
of the flour. To obtain the best results the mixing should not be done in 
the ordinary scone-making way, but the lard should be first melted; the 
milk, eggs, and sugar are then well mixed together, and the prepared flour 
beat into this liquid to produce a tough batter. The melted fat is then 
gently but smoothly mixed with the batter, and the mixing is ready for 
dropping on the plate, which should be moderately hot and well greased. 
One advantage of mixing the fat last in the melted state is that the batter 
becomes a little firmer as it stands, while this method also seems to pro- 
duce a shorter and freer-eating pancake than if the fat had been rubbed 
into the flour in the usual way. Some skill is needed in dropping them on 
the plate so as to ensure perfect roundness. If a spoon is used it should 
be held comparatively high above the plate, and as the mixture is forced 
out by the finger, it is really thrown on to the plate with a force sufficient 
to spread it a little. A simpler expedient to ensure roundness is to drop 
the pancakes from an ordinary savoy bag. The same rules as to turning 
and baking apply to the richer sort as to the cheaper described above, 
but greater care is required in dealing with the former. The usual size 
is about 3 in. diameter and h inch thick, the price being a halfpenny, 
but these make an excellent selling line for afternoon tea if made smaller 


and sold at three for a penny. They eat short and nice, not unlike a 
sponge or a piece of Genoa cake, but less rich. The addition of flavouring 
essences is optional, but they are satisfactory without, and much better in 
that state than made nauseous with an overdose of lemon or vanilla. 

For the thin Scotch crumpets the quantities are 5. lb. strong flour, 
through which 1| oz. bicarbonate of soda and 3 oz. cream of tartar have 
Scotch been twice sifted; 2i lb. sugar, 1 lb. lard, 8 eggs, and 5 to 

Crumpets. 5| Y>t. milk. These are best made in the same way as pan- 
cakes, by mixing the eggs, half the milk, and all the sugar together, and 
first beating in all the flour. The fat is then added in a melted state, and 
then the remainder of the milk. The plate should be hotter than for 
pancakes, and must be well greased before each filling. As it is essential 
that the crumpets should be thin and holey and flexible when baked, it is 
as well to try one on the plate before starting the lot. A small ladle or cup 
is a suitable thing for dropping them. The soft upper surface should be 
quite covered with holes before they are turned over, and the colour is 
generally a good enough indication of sufficient baking. When done they 
should be about ^ in. thick and about 5 in. in diameter. They should be 
pliable enough to roll without cracking, and this result is best obtained 
when a tough strong flour is used. On Shrove Tuesday there is a good 
shop sale for these goods if dusted with sugar on which a little juice of 
lemon has been sprinkled. In Yorkshire and the Midlands of England 
small hot-plate cakes are made from a mixture consisting of 4 lb. flour, 
through which 1 oz. bicarbonate of soda and 2 oz. cream of tartar have been 
sifted. Into this 1 lb. of butter, or half butter and half lard, is rubbed, 
and a bay made. Into the bay 12 oz. sugar is weighed, and 12 oz. 
cleaned currants placed round the outside. Dough is made with 6 eggs and 
li pt. milk. This makes a free soft dough, which, after standing a few 
minutes to lose its toughness, is rolled out about ^ in. thick and cut out 
with a cutter 3 in. in diameter. These are baked on the hot plate and 
turned when half done. 

Scotch girdle scones are conveniently baked on a hot plate. These are 
usually quite plain, but to make them satisfactorily requires some care. 
Into 8 lb. of very soft white flour 2 oz. of bicarbonate of 
soda and 4 oz. of cream of tartar are thoroughly sifted; 
some bakers also sift 1| oz. of salt through the flour. Dough is made with 
about 3| pt. of buttermilk either on the table or in a basin. Mixing, 
while being sufficient, should not be excessive, to cause the dough to become 
tough, and to this end it is a practice in some bakeries to mix the dough 
lightly with a stick in a basin, then to turn it out on a dusted board and 
knead very lightly. To obtain light scones it is necessary to have the 
dough as soft as it can be to handle. The size of the scones is determined 
by the custom of the locality. In some places the usual size is that sold 
for a halfpenny, each scone, which is the quarter of a round, weighing 
about 3 oz. In the north of Ireland, where soda bread of this sort is in 
great demand, the penny size is more common, the weight in this case 


being from 8 to 10 oz. The plate must not be over hot or there is much 
difficulty in baking the scones in the centre, as they are usually made 1 in. 
or li in. thick. It does not require to be greased. When baked on one 
side the scone is turned over gently and baked on the other side. The 
most convenient tool for readily turning the scones is a small piece of 
stick well sharpened at one end. If the flour available is rather strong and 
seems to produce tough scones, 1 oz. of lard to each pound of flour may be 
rubbed in, and this softens and shortens them to some extent, but it is 
better to secure very soft flour, and to depend on this and on light mixing 
to ensure that the scones will have the softness so much desired. 

Under the name of sweet milk scones there is another variety made 
which some customers prefer. For these weigh down 8 lb. soft flour and 
sift twice through it 2 oz. bicarbonate of soda and 4 oz. cream sweet Milk 
of tartar; into this rub 12 oz. of lard. Dough is made much Scones. 
stiflTer than for ordinary scones; so only about 3^ pt. of milk is required 
for this quantity, but 12 oz. of sugar and 1 oz. of salt are previously 
dissolved in it. Ordinary buttermilk may be used, and gives quite as 
good results as fresh milk. These scones are usually weighed at 8 oz. 
for four, and are sometimes sold in large flat rounds not more than | in. 
thick, or they may be cut into four in the usual way before baking. 
For these, on account of the sugar they contain, the plate must be only 
moderately hot; else they bake too dark in colour. In pinning out the 
rounds, the best plan is to pin each first only half the width it is desired, 
then, after it has lain a little, pin it out to the full size, which should be 
about 8 in. diameter, and then cut into four in the ordinary way, piling 
the scones on top of each other in fours until enough are 
done to fill the hot plate. A form of this kind of scone 
which at one time was common in Scotland, but made in private families 
rather than by bakers, contained the same quantity of aerating chemicals 
but no fat or sugar. In place of the latter 1^ oz. of golden syrup was 
used to each pound of flour. These are made in flat rounds about | in. 
thick, and are cut after being baked. 

The trade in curled oatcakes has now become much more an aflfair 
for the baker than formerly, when every Scottish housewife prided 
herself on the excellence of her oaten bread. Now a great Curled 
deal is made in the large bakeries and biscuit factories, but Oatcakes, 
there is nothing to prevent the small baker with a family connection 
holding this trade as his own. Oatcakes are best made from medium 
cut meal. For a small mixing use 3| lb. of oatmeal free from bitterness, 
and thoroughly mix | lb. strong flour with it. Rub into this 2 oz. lard. 
Make a bay, and weigh into it 1 oz. of salt, and use warm water to make 
dough in which has been dissolved in the bay about | oz. of bicarbonate 
of soda— no cream of tartar. Make dough rather soft at first, as it will 
stiffen very much while lying to be made up. Scale off" into pieces about 
6 oz. each and mould round, then pin out smoothly until about | in. thick 
and about 8 in. in diameter. This is not quite easy for anyone not familiar 


with the work, owing to the edges breaking and the dough at the begin- 
ning being sticky. The edges must be kept as even as possible by pinch- 
ing with the thumb and forefinger, and the dough kept from sticking 
by rubbing over on the top and underneath with a little dry meal. When 
enough are ready to fill the plate, they are neatly placed on it and 
baked on one side till nearly done, then turned over. Before they are 
sufficiently baked on the second side they will begin to curl slightly, and 
when this is the case they must be removed from the plate, or there is 
danger of producing a burned ridge along the back of each. Above hot 
plates specially adapted for oatcake work there is a rack fixed on which 
the oatcakes partially baked are placed, with the least-baked side towards 
the plate; in this position they are dried and more or less toasted by the 
heat radiated from the plate, and the process of curling is there completed. 
In the absence of such an arrangement it is sufficient to take the oatcakes 
from the plate, place them on a clean baking sheet, and dry them for a 
few minutes in an ordinary oven. Here, again, care has to be taken that 
they are not burned. The addition of a little flour to the mixture is only 
a baker's expedient to make them easier to handle; it is not used in home 
baking. The pinch of soda is to remove objectionable flintiness. The fat 
is for the same purpose, but some prefer oatcakes without any fat. 



Very nice soda bread can be made without the use of a hot plate by 
baking either on baking sheets or on the oven bottom. For this purpose 
Oven-baked ^^^ mixture given first for plain scones is most suitable. The 
Soda Bread, scones, weighing 2 lb. for four, are pinned out about f in. 
thick, and then cut into four and glazed over with an egg wash consisting 
of half egg and half milk. After lying a little they are stabbed over in 
the centre with a skewer to prevent blisters, and baked on flat tins or in 
rows on the oven bottom. When properly set they are turned over, those 
on the oven bottom with a thin small bread peel, those on tins by drawing 
the tins to the mouth of the oven and turning the scones over one at a time. 
The only difficulty in dealing with goods of this sort is in watching the 
proper time to turn them. If this is done too soon the scones may be thin 
and close; if it is delayed too long the top is already set, and when turned 
the glazed portion only touches the hot tin at one or two points, and its 
appearance is spoiled; while neglect in this matter usually results in large 
Irish hollow places under the skin. When properly made, this sort of 

Soda Farl. goda bread, called in the north of Ireland soda farl, looks very 
bright, and sells well. It is about 1| in. thick, and it eats freer than that 
baked on the hot plate, although that is the usual manner of baking. 



Every district has its peculiar kinds of morning or breakfast rolls. In 
England generally, and particularly in London, this is either a flat round 
cake or a small long roll made in batches on flat tins. The Morning 
common practice is to make these from a piece of ordinary bread Rolls, 
dough, but it is better, if any considerable quantity is required, to make 
a special dough for themselves. As 
they are wanted early it is not 
always possible to make a straight 
dough for them in the morning, 
unless in cases where the men start 
very early or work during the night. 
If it is possible to allow three hours 
before the rolls are wanted the fol- 
lowing quantities may be used. For 
20 lb. medium strong flour use 6 oz. 
yeast, 4 oz. salt, 3 oz. sugar, and 
6 oz. lard or other tasteless fat. 
Make dough in the ordinary way 
with about 9 pt. of water at 104° F. 
This dough, kept in a warm place 
covered up for 1| hour, should after 
a good kneading be ready for scal- 
ing into the sizes desired. Where 
there is any quantity made it pays 
to have a small dough - dividing 
machine (flg. 14), which cuts out 
30 pieces at once from a weighed 
portion of dough. If small batched 
rolls are wanted these are simply 
moulded long and placed close to- 
gether on a baking sheet with deep 
edges, or one with small wood upsets 
round the sides. The sheet and sides 
should be slightly greased, and the 
rolls when tilled should be washed 
over with a little milk, and again 

when ready for the oven. These rolls will take quite half an hour to 
prove. If round bread cakes are made they are moulded coffee- 
round, pinned out to a little less than the width they are house Rolls, 
ultimately to be— because they spread a little — and washed over with 
milk or water. When sufficiently proved, and just before placing in 
the oven, they should be stabbed once or twice in the centre with a 
skewer, or indenting once in the centre with the finger will serve to 
prevent the blisters which are apt to form under the upper crust. A 
favourite shape of roll for which this dough is very suitable is that— 
generally about 3 oz. in weight— baked in a long round pan but open 

Fig. 14.— Dough-dividing Machine 


at the top. These rolls are occasionally baked with a very hard crust, 
which is afterwards rasped off, the name rasped roll being 
in that case used. The same dough is very suitable for 
making the large flat loaves called in Yorkshire bread or hatch cakes; 
only if to be used for this purpose it would require to stand in dough 
a half-hour at least longer than the time stated above, as these loaves 
present a drawn and unshapely appearance if the dough is in the least 
degree unripe when made up. 

In cases where it is not possible to wait so long, speed of working can 
easily be obtained by simply increasing the quantity of yeast. No bad 
Sponge for ©ffects will follow, except of course the increase in cost. Good 
Rolls. results are obtained, however, by making small bread from an 

overnight sponge, keeping that large in proportion to the total quantity 
of dough. For the same quantity of flour as that given above, the sponge 
would consist of 10 lb. flour, 1| oz. yeast, 1 oz. salt, 1 oz. sugar, and 3 qt. 
water at such a temperature as will make sponge 76° F. This sponge will 
be a very soft dough, and it should be well toughened by kneading. The 
most suitable vessel in which to keep this sponge is a small tub, which 
should be scalded, and, while wet, thickly dusted with cones. This sponge 
may stand seven hours; or, if nine hours is a more convenient period, 
then 1 oz. of yeast should be sufficient. It will rise and fall twice in 
that time, and in the morning should require very little breaking down. 
Dough would consist of 10 lb. flour, into which 6 oz. lard had been rubbed, 
3 oz. sugar, and 3 oz. salt, and 3 pt. water. This dough, given a rest for 
three-quarters of an hour, will be ready then for scaling and working up 
in any way desired. 

Some sorts of small fermented goods are made from stifler dough than 
the above. Of this sort are the small biscuit-like cakes cut out with a 
Nursery cutter, docked in the centre, proved, washed over with milk, and 
Biscuits, baked, and sold as nursery biscuits. These may be stiffened by 
adding flour, and 1 oz. more sugar for each pound of dough and flour used, 
or a special dough may be made as follows. Into 10 lb. of flour rub 12 oz. 
of lard or butter. Make dough with 1 qt. milk, 1 qt. water, 12 oz. sugar, 
2 oz. salt, and 8 oz. yeast. This dough should stand altogether two hours, 
and should then be well kneaded. As soon as the spring leaves it after 
kneading, it should be pinned out to about \ in. thick, then docked at 
regular intervals with a small docker about 1^ in. in diameter, then cut 
with a plain cutter about 2| in. diameter, each biscuit having the docker 
mark as nearly as possible in its centre. They should be neatly placed 
on clean baking sheets, washed over with milk, and allowed to prove in 
a dry heat for about twenty to twenty-five minutes, then baked in a warm 
oven. These biscuits or cakes should be stabbed once in the centre with 
a skewer just before placing in the oven. 

There is not now the same demand for dinner rolls as at one time 
existed, their place being taken for the most part by Vienna rolls; but 
where it is not possible owing to the lack of suitable appliances to make 






the latter, it is better to keep to the old-fashioned dinner roll than to 
make unsatisfactory imitations of Vienna rolls. For dinner rolls weigh 
8 lb. flour, and rub into it 8 oz. lard. Make dough with 3^ oid-styie 
pt. water at 100° F., or, if a good price can be obtained, Dinner Rolls, 
use half milk and half water, 3 oz. yeast, 1| oz. salt, and 1 oz, sugar. 
Make the dough very smooth by thorough mixing. Knead at the end 
of an hour, then allow it to lie for another hour, when it should be 
ready for scaling. These are made in several more or less plain shapes: 
in some cases merely rolled round like buns, sometinies oval, and some- 
times round with a deep cut across the top. These forms all have crusts 
inclined to be tough. Much the best plan is to bake the rolls, weighing 
about 1| oz. each, in old-fashioned dinner- roll pans, like dariole moulds, 
about 2 1 in. high, and narrower at the bottom than at the top. The rolls 
sliould be proved till they just reach the top of the pan, and then baked. 
The usual practice is to rasp the tops of the rolls. The crust is crisp and 
sweet, and the crumb is fine and seems almost to dissolve in the mouth. 

The Scotch breakfast roll or hap (Plate, Types of British Small 
Bread) is a good selling article even out of Scotland. These rolls are 
generally made by the sponge - and - dough system, the scotch Breakfast 
sponge standing about twelve hours to suit the require- Ro^ or Bap. 
ments of Scottish labour conditions. With compressed yeast such a sponge 
would consist of 30 lb. flour, 3 oz. yeast, 4 oz. salt, 2 oz. sugar, and 2 gal. 
water at 86° F. These would be well stirred in a tub and scraped down 
at the sides, and thickly dusted over with flour on top. In the morning 
this will have risen in the tub and dropped 3 or 4 in. Dough is made with 
30 lb. flour, 8 oz. lard, 6 oz. salt, 6 oz. sugar, and 5 qt. water at 100° F. 
The dough is well toughened by mixing, and then allowed to lie about 
half an hour to recover, when it should be ready for scaling. If the rolls 
are to be of the smooth-topped sort (Plate, Types of British Small Bread) 
they are first moulded oval, then gently pinned out till they are about 
3 in. long and 2 in. wide. They are then placed close together in rows 
on the table and well watered on top, after which they are transferred 
to heated boards thickly dusted with cones. They are allowed to prove 
for about thirty minutes, and are then transferred to the oven, each roll 
being lifted from its board to a thin long peel used for the purpose by 
means of a flat tin lifter. They must be baked in a very hot oven; other- 
wise they have a tough skin and take no colour. Rolls and baps are 
sometimes made white, and either oval or three-cornered (Plate, Types of 
British Small Bread). In the latter case they are moulded in pieces 
weighing 9 oz., pinned out to about 8 in. in diameter, and then cut into 
three. This sort is not washed over with water, but simply placed on the 
heated boards when cut and then dusted over with flour, and asfain dusted 
just before being placed in the oven. This dusting causes the baps to be 
quite white but yet not sickly-looking when baked. To prevent blisters, 
the finger is pressed into the centre of each bap before setting in the oven. 

Irish baps (Plate, Types of British Small Bread) are made from 


dougli somewhat similar to the above, but are handled differently on the 
board. They are made round in the smaller sizes, but the larger 
sorts, weighing from 8 oz. to 1 lb., are made of diamond shape. 
This form is obtained by first moulding the bap in a sort of torpedo shape, 
thick in the middle and pointed at the ends. By pressing the two ends 
towards the centre with the thumb and fingers of each hand the thickness 
of the centre is exaggerated; then it is pinned out until it is about J in. 
thick and more or less diamond-shaped. It is then turned over and proved 
on its top on a board thickly dusted with flour. The baps are proved rather 
close together, but are prevented from sticking by being well dusted over. 
When sufficiently proved they are turned over on to the left hand by a 
deft movement of the right hand, which catches the bap on the side with 
the side of the thumb; and wdien it is slightly lifted up by this means the 
hand is smartly turned underneath it, and it is turned over on to the left 
hand and transferred to the peel. 

When baked these baps are about 2 in. thick, and are light and pleasant 
to eat. Baps or rolls of the Scotch type can be equally well made on a short 
Short Process straight - dougli system. Weigh 10 lb. flour and rub into 
for Baps. it 6 oz. lard. Make dough with 2 J qt. half milk and half 

water, 3 oz. sugar, 2 oz. salt, and 5 oz. yeast. This dough will be moderately 
soft, and should be toughened by mixing. After lying one hour it is well 
kneaded, and then allowed to rest about half an hour more. It is then 
scaled to the sizes wanted and moulded. If it is impossible or inconvenient 
to bake these rolls on the oven bottom they may be proved and baked on 
baking sheets, cleaned, and then dusted with cones. Made on the short pro- 
cess just given, they will require to prove — not in steam, however — for about 
an hour and a quarter. They should be baked till the skin just feels hard, 
but it will become very soft as soon as they cool slightly. Very small sizes, 
not much larger than an egg, may be made for use as plain sandwiches, 
Sandwich ^^^, ^s they are very soft, they taste very nice made up in this 
Baps. way. The sort dusted on top are more suitable for the purpose 

just mentioned than those that are washed over, as the skins of the latter 
incline to be tough. 

On the border line between bread and buns there is a fermented scone 
called a teacake. This is more common in Yorkshire than elsewhere in 
Yorkshire England, but similar things are made nearly everywhere. For 
Teacakes. Yorkshire teacake (See plate, British Small Bread) weigh 
5 lb. moderately strong flour, and rub into it 8 oz. lard. Make a ferment 
with 1^ pt. milk and 1 pt. water, both together at 100° F., 3 oz. sugar, 
8 oz. flour, and 4 oz. yeast. Whisk these ingredients together, and let the 
ferment stand in a warm place until it drops. This will take about three- 
quarters of an hour. There is enough liquor here to make dough, but 
1 oz. salt and 4 oz. sugar are added at this stage, as well as 1 lb. of 
thoroughly cleaned currants. The dough is allowed to stand covered up 
in a warm place for one hour, when it is ready for scaling. The pieces 
are weighed about 4 oz. each and pinned out about 5 in. in diameter, 


and proved on slightly greased baking sheets. They are washed over 
with milk, or with a mixture of milk and egg, when first placed on the 
baking sheet; then just before baking they are stabbed with a skewer 
to prevent blisters. They should be baked in a rather warm oven. The 
Scotch method of preparing teacakes differs from the above only in the 
method of baking. The mixture may be the same, and the scotch 
dough is made with a ferment as above, but after the tea- Teacakes. 
cakes are pinned out and placed on the tin they are washed over with 
an e^g glaze consisting of about half egg and half milk. When properly 
proved they are placed in the oven, but as soon as they are set sufficiently 
to handle without spoiling they are turned over on their tops. It is 
not necessary to stab these, but one must be careful to turn them at 
the right time. If they stand over long before turning their tops become 
too much set, resulting either in the top being very narrow when baked 
or in the formation of a large blister. If they are turned too soon, the 
result is that they are thin and close and probably tough. Teacakes made 
in this way look very showy and sell well. Very small ones, weighing 
about 1 oz. each, but prepared in the same way, also sell well. 

Bakers who serve hotels and high-class restaurants are frequently asked 
to supply pulled bread. This consists simply of new bread, the crumb of 
which has been pulled in pieces about 2 in. long, IJ in. broad, p „ , „ 
and about J in. thick. These are placed on a baking-sheet, 
and nicely browned and dried in the oven until they are quite crisp. 



The greatest diversity of opinion prevails amongst bakers as to what is 
fancy bread. The rough interpretation of the term as recognized by the 
Bread Laws is: Bread that cannot readily be mistaken for Definitions of 
plain bread. The distinguishing mark in this case is some Fancy Bread, 
difference in shape or in glaze; but the baker in a technical sense gives the 
term fancy bread a much wider meaning, and makes it include all sorts 
which involve more labour in manufacture, or entail greater cost for 
materials. In this matter, however, there is a verj^ marked diflference in 
the method adopted in different districts in fixing the position of any new 
sort of loaf by bakers. In Scotland, and to some extent in Ireland, there is 
one sort of bread universally recognized as plain: all other sorts whatever 
are classed as fancy. In England there is no well-marked division between 
plain and fancy, the result being that the fancy bread of one day becomes 
the plain bread of the next: and as the law requires that all plain bread 
must be sold by weiglit, whilst fancy bread is exempt, it becomes much to 
the interest of the English baker to make as few varieties of the former as 


possible, while in the case of the Scotch and Irish bakers each new creation 
Effects of Loose "^ ^^® ^'^^ ^^ '^ variety may be a source of fresh trade and 
Definition in pi'ofit, because its weight may be reduced below the usual 

Eng an . ^^ ^^^ amount sufficient to compensate for extra labour 

or materials, or in part payment of the ingenuity used in its production. 
On this account the variety of bread is generally greater in Scotland and 
Ireland than in England. 

Bread does not lend itself to great variations either of shape or com- 
position, nor is it a suitable medium for making up with other materials 
Compounded used as food. Compounded breads are more or less in the 
Breads. nature of fads, and never find much favour with the public, 

who are, after all, the arbiters in such matters. In making additions to 
bread there are several cardinal points which must be observed. The 
colour should not, by additions, be made brownish or gray, or in the least 
approach what is regarded as dirty; the taste of those added substances 
must not be so pronounced as to destroy and mask the taste of the bread 
proper; the added substances must be only such as have a mild flavour that 
Allowable ^^^' blend with the recognized nutty flavour of bread; nothing 
Additions must be uscd which will destroy the texture and vesicularity of 
to Bread, ^j^^ bread. Conforming to these conditions, we have milk, butter, 
lard, oil, malt flour, malt extract. Of these, milk is the most popular, and, 
all things considered, probably the most valuable. As the value of milk 
Effects of ^^ bread is due to the butter it contains, it follows that im- 
Added Milk provements due to milk and to added butter have much in 
or utter. common, only that when butter is used it must be mild in 
flavour, and the quantity must not be sufficient to make its taste decided 
in the bread. The effects of milk and butter are to improve the flavour, 
texture, colour, and physical properties of the crumb. Lard and tasteless 
oils affect only texture and shortness, whilst malt and preparations con- 
taining malt are only used to impart flavour to special breads. 

There is no rule or method followed in naming special and fancy breads, 
and in consequence the names are arbitrary and confusing, as the same sort 
Confusion of of loaf may be known by entirely different names in localities 
Bread Names, only a few miles apart. The names adopted for the following 
recipes are intended only as distinguishing marks, and not as signifying 
types of bread. In this respect it may be suggested that bakers do not 
make the best use of their opportunities in giving distinctive names to their 
special loaves, but content themselves with such common names as viilk 
loaf, curiunt loaf, &c., names in fact that are really the creation of the 
customers to express what they require rather than of the baker. 

The following recipe is for a loaf made in shape exactly like an ordinary 
household, but baked on a tin. Its special character depends wholly on its 
Windsor or quality. It is variously called a Windsor or a Castle loaf. It 
Castle Loaf, may be made on either the sponge or the straight-dough system 
as follows. Set a thin sponge with 10 lb. flour, 1 gallon of water at 100° F., 
or such temperature as will make sponge when finished about 82"" F., 7 oz. 


yeast, and 2 oz. sugar. This sponge is best made in a small tub or wooden 
pail, and sliould not be stirred with the hand but beaten well with a stick 
or broad spatula. It should then be scraped from the side of the tub, the 
top thickly covered with flour, and the tub then covered with a sack and 
set in a warm place where it will not be disturbed. In about 45 minutes 
this sponge will have risen several inches and dropped. While it is ferment- 
ing weigh 40 lb. flour of high-class home millers' patent, or half home-milled 
and half Hungarian, and rub into this 1^ lb. lard, taking care to rub the 
latter till it is as tine as meal. Make a bay with the flour thus prepared, 
and weigh into it 4 cz. sugar and 9 oz. salt. Dissolve these in the water, 
of which If gallon at 100° F. will be required. Keep back half a gallon of 
this water to rinse out the sponge tub. Empty the sponge into the water 
in the bay and mix thoroughly, afterwards rinsing the tub as directed, 
using the rinsings as well to make dough. Toughen the dough by mixing 
and kneading until it is quite smooth. Pin it up close in the trough, and 
cover to keep warm. After it has lain about an hour and a half it should be 
well pinched and kneaded, and then in half an hour more it should be ready 
for scaling. If these loaves are to be sold at the same price as the ordinary 
2-lb. loaf, they should be weighed about 1 lb. 10 oz., and not more in any 

case than If lb. Loaves are handed up into boxes and o t .• n ■ 

* ^ Relative Prices 

allowed proof about half an hour. They are then moulded, of Fancy and 
each loaf in two halves, and one placed neatly on the top of ^^^^" Bread, 
the other, both closings downwards. After lying a minute or two to recover 
they are well pressed, bashed neatly in centre with the elbow, and placed 
evenly in an iron box close together, each row being greased with melted 
lard or tasteless oil. The box should be about 20 in. wide and 3| ft. long, 
and with sides all round about 5 in. deep. It should be iron Box for 
greased, not so much to prevent the loaves from sticking, Batch Bread, 
as to give them a short crisp crust when baked. The box should be slightly 
warmed before the loaves are placed in it. This size will hold thirty loaves, 
each being as nearly as possible 5 in. square. When all are in position 
their tops should be docked with a docker having teeth rather wide apart, 
and then washed over with milk. About twenty minutes' proof is allowed, 
and the loaves are then baked in an oven about 420° F. for one hour. 
When done they should be rubbed over on the top with lard while hot, and 
then turned out of boxes on their tops. W^hen separated these loaves have 
an extremely nice appearance, the crumb being white, with even texture 
and silky pile. They should not be more than about 4 in. high. They 
therefore cut an oblong slice with fine texture, and the bread eats short 
with good flavour. 

If it is more convenient to work with a straight dough, the following 
quantities may be used. With 50 lb. flour, half Hungarian and half first 
patent from English mill, or wholly the latter, use 8 oz. straight Dough 
compressed yeast, 5 oz. sugar, 9 oz. salt. As before, rub ^°^ Windsors. 
IJ lb. lard into flour, and make dough with 2f gallons water about 100° F. 
Mix the dough very thoroughly, and pinch and knead it until it becomes 


elastic and smooth. This dough will stand about three hours in trough, 
and should be kneaded well twice within that time. It is then scaled, 
handed up, and moulded in the same way as other dough. The straight- 
dough method does not produce quite such a clear-looking loaf as that made 
with sponge, and, when stale, it seems to be drier and shorter. In either 
case, however, if the loaves are allowed to prove too much in the boxes, they 
run into each other, and do not break with nice, smooth, bright sides. 

In parts of Ireland bread is baked in tins in this way, the dough, how- 
ever, being only ordinary sort. In Limerick this kind of loaf is called a 
Limerick cottage, being moulded exactly like an English cottage, the 

Cottage Bread. ^Qp being about half the weight of the bottom. These two 
parts are first moulded round in the ordinary way; then after proving a 
little separately they are rolled out long and topped, and placed in an 
iron box quite close together, but all in one row. For this sort of loaf 
the box is about 4|- ft. long and about 8 in. wide, with deep sides. When 
the tin is filled it is placed in a warm place, and the loaves are allowed to 
prove for 25 to 30 minutes, then baked in the usual way. These loaves 
look like fliat plates of bread about 7 in. broad, 5 in. high, and not more 
than 1| in. thick. In this case, as in the other, if they are given too much 
proof, they run into each other and do not break off flat and smooth. They 
are washed over on top before being set in the oven and with grease when 
they are drawn. 

In Scotland a t3'^pe of fancy loaf much more common thirty years ago 
than now is called a Jenny Lind, or shortly, a Lind (see Plate, Types of 
Jenny Lind ScoTCH AND Fancy Bread, No. 4). The source of the name 
Loaf. ^a^g obviously that of the great singer, but the reason for 

naming this particular kind of loaf after her is not so obvious. This loaf 
is round and flat, and consists of top and bottom about the same size rolled 
out with a rolling-pin, proved in hot air on baking sheets, and heavily 
glazed with egg before baking. The dough for these loaves is made much 
tighter than ordinary dough. The usual practice is to take part of the small 
bread sponge and mix in about 1 oz. of lard and | oz. of sugar for each 
loaf, then to stiflen up this sponge with flour to the required stifl'ness. This 
dough is, after lying a little, well braked or passed through biscuit rollers 
until it acquires a perfectly smooth skin. It is allowed to lie for about two 
hours, and then scaled off' in pieces, about 1 lb. 12 oz., to sell at the same 
price as the ordinary 2-lb. loaf. When all are moulded the halves of each 
loaf are pinned out to about 6 in. diameter and 1 in. thick, and placed one 
on top of the other, then pressed close with the heel of the hand and 
placed on baking sheets, slightly greased; the loaves are set some dis- 
tance from each other to allow for spreading; about eight loaves on each 
sheet is the rule. They are docked and washed over with milk when 
placed on sheets, and put away to prove in a dry heat, but protected from 
draughts. If they are placed in a prover with a moist atmosphere they 
need not be washed over in the first instance at all, but it is dangerous to 
use naked steam to prove these loaves, as it not only causes them to spread 


1. French Staff or Long Vienna. 

2. Belgian Roll. 

3. Baton. 

4. Jenny Lind. 

5. Scotch Pan. 

6. Coburg. 

7. Fancy Milk. 

8. Fancy Rumpy. 



too much, but spoils their appearance by producing blisters all over the 
crust. Owing to the dough being stiff they may take an hour to prove, 
whilst in some cases 45 minutes may be sufficient. They are prevention of 
carefully washed over with a strong egg glaze, but before Blisters and 
being placed in the oven they are stabbed in about six or 
eight places with an iron skewer, as a precaution against large holes form- 
ing under the top crust or in the centre of the top part. These loaves, 
even after being given a good proof, are very close in texture, yet not by 
any means heavy. The crumb is short and pleasantly sweet. Customers 
do not keep to this kind of bread constantly, but seem to tire of it readily. 

Instead of stiffening up an ordinary sponge or piece of dough to make 
this class of bread, a short sponge may be made thus. Take 5 lb. flour 
with 2 qt. water at 104° F. Mix 5 oz. of yeast into about 1 pt. Lj^ds from 
of the water, and add 2 oz. of sugar. Make the whole into Sponge and 
a thin sponge in a large jar. Allow it to stand one hour. °"^ " 
Make dough with 15 lb. flour into which 6 oz. of lard has been finely 
rubbed, and 3 pt. water in which 3| oz. salt and 1 oz. sugar are dissolved. 
It is better to keep one pint of this water to rinse out the jar in which the 
ferment or sponge has been made, and as this is a cooling operation the 
water at first should be about 104° F. The dough will be stiff', and on that 
account should, after lying half an hour, be passed several times through a 
biscuit brake, or, if this is not available, it should be well elbowed until 
quite smooth. Elbow or brake it again in another hour; then, after allow- 
ing it to lie about 15 minutes to recover, it may be scaled into the sized 
pieces already indicated, and moulded on to tins and treated as already 
described. Dough made in this way requires to be proved as loaves for 
from 45 minutes to one hour. 

In Scotland it is usual to make several different shapes from the same 
dough. The most common is that locally known as a French loaf. This is 
made generally about the same weight as the Lind. The scotch 
pieces are first moulded long, then, either through a biscuit French Loaf, 
brake or with a rolling-pin, they are made into long sheets of dough about 
14 in. long, 5 in. wide, and about | in. thick. The ends are folded into the 
centre, and the double ends thus formed are turned over one on the top 
of the other. These loaves are proved on tins, back to back, as by this 
arrangement the backs are prevented from crusting too quickly, and the 
fronts of the loaves spring first and open out in the manner desired. They 
require about as long to prove as the other, and, when ready, they are 
glazed over with egg wash and perforated several times through the back 
with a skew^er to prevent the formation of holes or blisters. This method 
of making Scotch French loaves is confined principally to country districts. 
The practice in the large towns is to make them from 
ordinary dough, a little stiffer than usual, and sometimes of Baking in 
with, but more often without, a pound or so of lard per ^^^t and West 
sack of flour. When the dough is of this sort the West 
of Scotland practice is to prove the loaves in boxes, and then set them 

Vol, I. 22 


with ends touching each other, but back to back, on the oven bottom, with- 
out any tins. The practice in the East is to bake these in long, shallow 
tins, with sides about 2 in. deep, the loaves, however, in this case as in the 
other being hatched or close together at the ends. These loaves take about 
one hour to bake, and, when done, are washed over the upper edge witli 
water only, which imparts a gloss to the surface, especially if the oven 
has been moderately warm. The standing difficulty in making this shape 
of loaf, whether from ordinary dough or from the stiff sort first described, 
is that of avoiding large spaces under the top crust, or, on the other hand, 
Holes in of preventing the two parts of the loaves from sticking 

French Loaves, together at the front, where they should open, and cracking 
at the back, where they should be continuous. One cause of the latter 
defect has been already noticed, viz., want of protection for the back and 
the formation of crust too soon. But another, and the most usual, cause is 
unripeness of dough. The persistency of holes is usually the result of bad 
moulding, but may also be due to the dough being over-ripe. This type of 
loaf is made in several parts of the country, although hardly in two 
districts under the same name. In some parts they are called bricks; but 
turnover is a more common name, whilst in Ireland large loaves of this 
shape are called lumps, and in some parts, notably in Limerick district, 
where they are made very thin, they are called household. 

Another shape of loaf made from the same kind of dough as Linds is 
one or other form of the rumpy or porcupine loaf (see Plate, Scotch and 
Fancy Bread, No. 8). There is no difference in the mode 
of manipulation, except that the loaves are first moulded or 
chaffed round, and then made oval, and proved on tins slightly greased. 
When sufficiently proved, they are glazed over with a wash consisting of 
one Qgg mixed with enough water to fill half the egg shell, or one yolk 
Strong with twice that amount of water, the water and egg in each 

Egg Wash, gg^gg being thoroughly well mixed, so that the texture or grain 
of the egg is quite destroyed; otherwise the loaves may be streaky. The 
wash must not be applied as soon as the loaves are moulded, as is some- 
times done, for the loaves are then hardly half the bulk they are after 
proof, and the smaller surface covered at first will only show as a round 
glazed patch after proof, while the greater part of the loaf has a com- 
paratively dull appearance. After washing over, the loaves are neatly 
cut with a sharp knife; a pocket knife serves best for this purpose. The 
usual design consists simply of straight parallel lines or of diagonal lines 
crossing each other, forming diamonds. The cuts must be very light, 
only cutting the skin; otherwise, if they are deep, they open out too 
much, and produce too broad a line of white as compared with the darker 
crust on each side. But clean cuts and not scratches must be made, or 
the crust of the loaf looks rough and ragged. As a rule, loaves allowed 
to prove thus freely are clearer and lighter than those confined in tins. 

The shape called Coburg (Plate, Scotch and Fancy Bread, No. 6) 
may also be made from stiff dough. It is manipulated in exactly the 


same way as rumples. The loaves, after moulding oval, must in this 

case, however, be washed over and cut at once, as they have to be 

proved under the covers. Those covers are usually oval, ^ ^ ^ ,. 

^ 1,11 1 Scotch Coburg. 

similar to the brown bread covers; but oblong or round 

ones may be used for variety. The cutting is done in the same way 

as already described; but when covers are used, more ingenuity may be 

exercised in the designs with good effect. Besides parallel lines and 

diamonds, radiating lines, parallel angles, leaves, ferns, curves, &c., may 

all be made on the loaves by the use of egg; wash and a sharp knife. 

As in the case of brown bread baked under covers, it is better to keep 

one of the covers mouth upward to note when the loaves cut Designs 

are sufficiently proved; and as white dough springs a good °" Loaves. 

deal more than brown, the loaves must not be proved above 1| in. from 

the top of the tin before they are set in the oven, and 14 oz. of even 

stiff dough will be quite sufficient to fill a cover of 1 lb. size. This kind 

of bread, like all the others made from stiff dough, has a close and even 

texture, and breaks quite short. It eats sweet and moist, and keeps moist 

longer than bread made from much softer dough. It is, of course, sold 

at a higher price than plain — usually 14 oz. for 2d., or 1| lb. for Sd. 

Pan loaves of fancy shapes are generally recognized and sold as fancy 

bread. The ordinary round shape like a roller, called a pistol, may be 

made from ordinary dough; but like the fluted loaf, or what Fancy Pan 

is known as a toast loaf (Plate, Toast and Milk Bread), Loaves. 

it is better made from a special dough, for which the following method 

will be found suitable. Weigh 40 lb. English patent flour and make 

into a slack dough with 2^ gal. water at 100° F., 3 oz. sugar, 8 oz. 

salt, 8 oz. lard, and 10 oz. yeast. Work this dough till it becomes very 

tough and elastic, the operation taking by hand quite 20 minutes; or if 

a small machine is available, mix it in the machine for 15 minutes. 

When thoroughly toughened, work in 6 lb. more flour until it is 

thoroughly mixed. Allow this dough to lie in a warm place for 2| hours 

altogether, kneading thoroughly twice in that time. It should then be 

ready for scaling. As this dough is very elastic, 2 lb. of dough for each 

loaf will be as bulky when baked as 2 lb. 3 oz. of ordinary dough; and 

for close tins, whether round or oblong, the smaller quantity will usually 

be sufficient. The loaves must first be handed up, and then moulded after 

lying about 10 minutes. Moulding has to be done with some care, as the 

toughness of the dough makes it difficult to work for those familiar only 

with ordinary dough. When moulded, the loaves should be neatly placed in 

a row, and, when a sufficient number are done, well greased all over with 

melted lard, and then placed in the tins which have been cleaned but not 

greased. This plan of greasing the loaves over instead of 

the tins gives the loaves a nice rich bloom, and makes their '■^^^'"S 

crust very short and crisp. Loaves made from dough of this kind do not 

require to be proved so high in the tins before setting, but should be placed 

in the oven with a smaller proof than ordinary tin bread, as they spring a 



great deal more while baking. The bread will be of an even texture with 
a fine pile, and will cut without crumbling; but bread made in this way 
seems to become dry when stale. This method is very suitable for plain 
pistols, for toast bread, or for Scotch pans baked four in one pan. Instead 
of using lard in the mixture, a better loaf is obtained for all the sorts 
mentioned by using half milk and half water for dough-making; but in 
this case it is necessary to bake the bread a little more; otherwise it seems 
underdone. This last sort of bread may properly be called milk bread, and 
sold as such, the price being, if possible, 50 per cent more than plain. 



Towards the end of September or the beginning of October each year, 
bakers, especially in the southern parts of England, are frequently asked to 
Harvest supply large loaves for harvest festivals in churches. Any- 

Festival Bread, thing large seems acceptable, such as a monster cottage, or 
a twist, or a long loaf of inordinate length, but preference is usually given 

to the wheatsheaf (see Plate, Harvest Fes- 
tival Loaves), as the emblem of plenty, and 
if this loaf is of good size and neatly made it 
approaches as near the ornamental as the bread 
baker can get. A convenient size for a loaf 
of this kind is about 26 or 28 lb. of dough. 
Ordinary bread dough made a little stifFer than 
for crusty cottage bread will suffice, but it is 
really better to make a special dough for the 
purpose. It is a mistake some bakers make 
to have the dough as stiff as that for biscuit, 
the result being that the loaf hardly springs at 
all, but is more like a hard tile than a plump, 
soft, healthy-looking loaf. Weigh 18 lb. patent 
grade flour similar to that used for bread, and 
make into a smooth dough with 6 oz. yeast, 
4 oz. salt, 2 oz. sugar, and 3| qt. water at 100° F. 
Allow this dough to lie 1 hour; then knead well, 
and after another 20 minutes beat out into a 
sheet of dough about 2 in. thick with the knuckles first, but finishing with 
Making a ^ thick rolling-pin, or through a biscuit brake if that is avail- 
Wheatsheaf. able. This gives you a sheet all alike in thickness, with a 
smooth surface and an even texture. From this piece of dough cut out with 
a sharp knife a part the shape of a wheat sheaf (fig. 15); then cut the edges 
all round in a sloping direction, so that the dough next the baking sheet ifc' 

Fig. 15.— Shape of Sheet of Dough for 
Harvest Festival Loaf 











quite thin, and sloping upwards, to give the sheaf a rounded appearance. 

This shaped piece should be, at the head and widest part, about 2 in. less 

than the width of the baking sheet on which it is placed. The cuttings 

from the rough sheet of dough will be sufficient material for the wheat ears 

and stalks. Before making these the sheaf should be well watered all over, 

to prevent it skinning, as well as to act as a means of holding on the ears. 

These are made singly (fig. 16). Each ear should not contain more than 

about \ oz. of dough. This is rolled out under the hand, and „^^ 

"* * Wheat Ears, 

made pointed at one end and rounded at the other. The 

rounded end is pinched between the two forefingers, the ear lying or hang- 
ing along the palm of the hand with the point downwards. With a small 
pair of scissors thin cuts are made down the centre of the ear about \ in. 
deep, and in a direction nearly parallel to the ear itself, finishing at the 
pointed end. This 
has the effect of 
making a row of 
sharp-pointed pieces 
overlapping each 
other down the 
centre of the ear. In 
the same way cuts 
are made down each 
side of the ear, be- 
tween the flaps of the 
centre row. When 
finished, the ear is 
rolled gently under i?? stage 
the hand on the 
table. The result is 

a very good imitation of an ear of wheat. When a number of these are 
prepared (and they are easier to make than to describe) they are placed 
close together, but not touching, all round the top of the wheatsheaf. 
The next row is placed between these, but farther down, leaving about 
\\ in. of the first row exposed. To make the sheaf look natural, care 
must be taken after the two top rows are in position not to place the 
others too formally. To this end each succeeding row should not have 
the points too regular, either in distance apart or in position or direction 
(see Plate, Harvest Festival Loaves). The ears at the side should 
point in the same direction as that in the body at the head; only some 
of them should be turned slightly round as if drooping. Altogether 
about six rows of ears will be required; but, of course, as these approach 
the centre the rows become smaller. When enough are 
done and placed in position, wheat stalks have to be 
made. These are simply small pieces of dough no larger than those 
required for ears, but rolled out very long, and about the thickness of a 
wheat straw. The sheaf being kept quite moist by repeated washings with 

2nd Stage 3rd stage 4th Stage 

Fig. 16.— Stages in Preparation of Wheat Ears 

5th stage 

Making Straws. 


water, the straws when made are placed on it close together until the whole 
is covered; then a second row may be placed on top of these, especially in 
the centre, but not in formal order. The straws finish where the ears 
begin; and as it is not possible to make neat joinings or to hide them, a 
number of ears should be cut and placed at irregular angles, some drooping 
to one side and some to the other, with some bent round as if drooping 
towards you. The next thing is to prepare the band. This consists of 
about twelve straws placed together and twisted round loosely, then tied 
in a loose knot in the centre. This is then placed across the centre of the 
sheaf, bent slightly, but not pressed down at all, the two loose ends being 
tucked underneath at the sides. When all is finished, it is thoroughly 
glazed over with egg wash, care being taken to force the wash 
into the crevices between the ears and under the edges of the 
band. By the time all this is done the loaf will be ready for the oven; but 
before setting it there, it must be stabbed in a good many places with a 
pointed knife to prevent its cracking. The knife holes should be made in 
the same direction as the wheat straws and ears, so as to show no cross 
marks when the bread is baked. The oven should be about 420° F., and a 
loaf of this size ought to bake in from forty-five minutes to an hour. It 
must be very well baked, so that the crust keeps crisp even when stale. 
There is some danger of breaking this loaf when removing it from the tin, 
and the break always occurs just where the band is. It is to reduce this 
danger, as well as to make the sheaf look natural, that the band is not 
placed straight across, but is bent; for the same reason, also, thorough 
baking is advised. 

Crowns, anchors, and other strange shapes are sometimes made by 
bakers for harvest festival displays; but these, made with dough, are 
neither beautiful in themselves, nor are they appropriate to the occasion. 
Besides the wheatsheaf, there is another form of harvest loaf which is 
appropriate, and that is a long plain loaf as flat as possible on the top, and 
Long Harvest with the words harvest festival printed on it. The recipe 
L°^f- given above is very suitable for a loaf of this kind. The 

greatest ingenuity and skill can be displayed in the manner of writing the 
words on the loaf. Printing with icing sugar after the loaf is baked must 
be ruled out. The use of orange or lemon peel for the purpose is not so 
bad, as the contrast in colour between the brown of the bread and the 
darker brown of the peel is not so glaring as that between the bread and 
white sugar; but the proper material to use for the printing is bread itself. 
This is sometimes done by making little round pieces of very stiff dough, 
and forming the letters with these. The method is quite eflective, but not 
very ingenious. Another, and an easier plan, is to wash over the loaf with 
egg wash just before it is placed in the oven, then to cut the surface with 
Printing on a sharp penknife in the form of letters which open out and show 
Bread. -^qIq {^ ^ dark setting when the loaf is baked. If the cuts are 

carefully made of varying depth to represent hair and thick strokes, it 
is possible to make a large loaf look very neat in this way, particularly if 






a little ornament in the same style is made as a border. The most appro- 
priate and the neatest way of forming letters and borders on harvest loaves 
is by the use of wheat ears. For the letters, these can be made of any size 
in proportion to the size of the loaf, and by making letters of fancy or 
rustic shape they may look very neat (see Plate, Harvest Festival 
Loaves). A harvest festival loaf of the size indicated above could not be 
sold under about 6s., and this sum would hardly compensate for the time 
taken; only such loaves have at times to be made to oblige customers, and 
some return may be obtained by way of advertisement. 



All kinds of loaves are sold as milk bread, even some in which there is 
no milk used. A little glaze on the top or a little lard inside is sometimes 
made the excuse for the use of the name. In other cases, and 
these are probably most common, pieces of ordinary bun dough 
with the usual quantity of sugar and fat are baked in tins and sold as milk 
bread. The name is used now as signifying only bread made wholly 
or partly with milk in place of water. There is no technical difficulty 
about using milk wholly as the liquor with which to make dough; 
but the bread, from the baker's point of view, is not so satisfactory as 
bread made partly with milk and partly with water. When milk only 
is used, the bread is small and bound, probably because of the coagulation 
of the casein of the milk. If bulk is not specially desired, the proportion 
of milk to water may be as two to one; but excellent results are obtained 
if the proportions are half and half. Since the beneficent pauHg ,„ Bread 
effects of milk are due to the fat it contains, the best effects made wholly 
are only o})tained if new milk with all its cream is used. ^^^ ^ 
Skimmed milk is not, as might be supposed, suitable for use in bread- 
making, not so much because of the absence of its fat, but on account of 
the large quantity of milk sugar it contains in conjunction with lactic 
germs, which are always present in considerable number in milk, and 
which readily produce lactic acid from the milk sugar. This skim Milk 
lactic acid, quite apart from its sourness, has an excessive solvent Defects, 
action on the gluten of flour, with the result that bread made with milk 
much more readily becomes dry and crumbly than that made with water. 
If it is made wholly with skimmed milk, these bad effects are likely to be 
twice as great as when half new milk is used, and the good effects accruing 
from the latter are absent from the former. 

The general effects of the use of fresh milk are to give the crumb of the 
bread a rich creamy colour and an even texture, to make the crust thin 
and fine, and to improve the flavour of the bread. As a rule it is better 


to make milk bread rather slack. The following method is recommended 
when the quantity is considerable. Make a thin sponge with 1| gal, water 
Recipe for at 100° F., 15 lb. flour, 8 oz. yeast, 3 oz. sugar. This sponge 
Milk Bread, should be made very tough by beating well in the tub with 
the hand or a stick. It should then be scraped clean on the sides, the top 
covered with flour, and a clean bag placed over the tub to keep out dust. 
If allowed to stand in a warm place it should rise and drop in about 
45 minutes. For dough, weigh 33 lb. moderately strong flour, and of good 
colour, 9 oz. salt, 4 oz. lard or butter, 2 oz. sugar, 1 gal. milk, and | gal. 
water, the two last mixed together and heated to 100° F. Sponge is first 
broken as smoothly as possible with the milk and water and a smooth fine 
dough made. If a machine is used, the sponge need not first be broken 
up in the liquor but may be emptied in the machine on top of the flour, 
some of the liquor used to rinse out the tub, and the whole made into dough 
in the usual way. The dough should then lie in the trough for 1^- hour 
in all, and ought to be kneaded at least once and if possible twice. It 
should in that time be ready for scaling. It is usual to make it in small 
loaves weighing from 12 to 14 oz., which are sold at 2d., or in 1| lb. sizes or 
1 lb. 6 oz. to sell at 3d (See Plate, Milk Bread.) 

The shape may be anything convenient, but these loaves are usually 
made in tins. A small cake hoop, either round or oval, may be used, and 
Shapes of when the loaves are nearly ready for the oven they are cut 
Milk Bread, qj^ ^op rather deep with a sharp knife. Before cutting they 
should be washed over with a v/eak egg wash, not so much to make them 
glossy as to give them a rich bloom. A common shape is that already 
described as a Coburg (see Plate, Milk Bread). When this shape is made 
with soft dough it must not be allowed to prove quite so much as when the 
dough is stiff"; otherwise the cover will be lifted up and the loaf thrown on 
one side, giving it an unsightly appearance. Milk loaves may be made in 
long tins, a few cuts being made on top either lengthways or diagonally. 
A neat and rather fancy-looking loaf is obtained by rolling or moulding 
the dough into one long strip about 16 in. long, flattening it slightly, and 
rolling up from both ends into the form of an S-like scroll. This is proved 
in a fluted tin with .slightly sloping sides. The bottom part of the loaf 
looks quite as if moulded in one piece, showing only the fluted marks of 
the tin, while the top shows the scroll form produced at moulding. This 
loaf is well proved and glazed with egg wash before baking (see Plate, 
Toast and Milk Bread). If the milk bread is wanted crusty the loaf 
can be made round and proved on cloths upside down, then a crease made 
in the top as in the split Coburg (see the Plate, Scotch and Irish Loaves). 

Instead of making sponge as above, excellent milk bread is produced 
by the straight-dough method as follows. Weigh 20 lb. flour, 5 oz. yeast. 
Rich Milk ^h OZ. salt, 2 OZ. sugar. Make dough in the usual way, toughen- 
Bread. jj-^g {^ -y^eU \)y ^^ixing with 2 qt. water and 2| qt. milk mixed to- 

gether and heated to 104° F. Allow this dough to lie 2J hours, kneading 
well twice in that time; then scale, hand up, and mould in the usual way 






into any form desired. A milk loaf of very superior quality may be made 
thus. Rub into 10 lb. flour 3 oz. of butter; then make dough with 1| qt. 
milk and 1 qt. water together raised to 104-'' F., 2 oz. salt, 3 oz. yeast, and 
2 oz. sugar. This dough will be soft, and must be well toughened in 
mixing to make it easy to handle. It should be ready for scaling in about 
two hours after it has been made, but should be kneaded once or twice in 
that period. The pieces for loaves should be weighed at 1;^ lb. to be sold 
for 3d. They are moulded round, and, after lying a little, are flattened 
with a rolling-pin to about 6 in. diameter; then baked under covers con- 
sisting of ordinary round cake tins of the diameter mentioned, and about 
2 in. deep. (See Brunswick Loaves, Plate Milk Bread.) These tins or 
covers must have holes pierced in the bottom to prevent the tin rising 
as the loaf proves. These loaves may be washed over with a weak 
egg wash before the covers are placed over them, and one cover should 
be allowed to stand open end upward to show how proof is proceeding. 
The loaves must be made quite flat, and are ready for the oven when 
about I inch from the top of the open tin. When baked they should be 
exactly the shape of the interior of the tin, the same thickness throughout, 
with a fine and perfectly even texture, the crumb of a creamy-white, 
and the crust golden -brown. 

Instead of using fresh milk for fancy bread, quite as good results may 
be obtained from the best quality of dried milk, of which there are now 

several brands on the market. This milk is guaranteed pure, 

. r ' Dried Milk, 

that is, containing all the constituents of fresh milk except the 

water. This is much better than the so-called condensed milk, which 

contains a greater or less quantity of sugar. It is better than fresh milk, 

as the quality is always the same, and also because there need be no waste 

in its use, and it can be stocked, if kept in a cool place, for any reasonable 

time. It can be used in the proportion of 3 oz. of dried milk to each quart 

of water, or, if the milk is wanted extra strong, 4 oz, to the quart. There 

is no trouble in preparing the milk. It is made first into a smooth paste 

with warm but not boiling water; then the remainder of the water is 

added, and the whole well stirred. It seems very soluble. It is best to 

be made just as required. If dried milk is used for the above recipes, the 

milk can be added in the powder form to the water in the proportion 

required for the amount of milk to be used. This dried milk is equally 

suitable for all sorts of small goods in which milk is used; it should be 

noted, however, that cheap dried milks, of which there are also several 

brands on the market, do not contain the cream or butter fat, and therefore 

do not give the same results as the best, nor the same as fresh milk. These 

dried skim milks may be used with advantage in scones, cheap cake, &c., 

and may be used in smaller proportion in bread, the effect being to improve 

the texture, and give the crust a finer appearance. 

Vol. I. 2» 




There is considerable sale for a plain loaf containing a few currants or 

other fruit, and for the last year or so this bread has been in even greater 

, favour owing to extensive advertising undertaken by the 
Currant Bread. o »/ 

government of Greece to boom the currant trade. If 

currants only are to be used the general practice is to work about 1 lb. 

of currants into 16 lb. of bread dough along with about 4 oz. of sugar. 

When a quantity has to be made it is really better to make a lighter dough, 

euch as for tin bread, and mix currants along with it. Weigh 50 lb. flour 

and make it into dough with 2f gal. water at 100'' F., 10 oz. yeast, 8 oz. 

salt, 10 oz. sugar, 8 oz. lard or other fat, and 6 lb. currants. The dough 

should lie in the trough for 2 hours," to be well kneaded once in that time. 

It should then be ready for scaling. The loaves are weighed at the rate 

of about 2 lb. of dough for 5d. The best shape of tin for this sort of bread 

is long and narrow, say 8 in. long, 2 in. wide at the bottom, 2^ in. at the 

top, and 3 in. deep. This tin will enable a loaf weighing 16 or 18 oz. to 

look quite substantial and large. The top of the loaf, after proof, which 

may take half an hour after moulding, should be washed over with a weak 

egg glaze before baking. 

Instead of using currants only in this dough an excellently flavoured 
loaf is obtained by using the same proportion of fruit, but consisting of 
Mixed half currants and half sultanas with, in addition, 8 oz. of orange 

Fruit Loaf. ^qq[ q^^ very fine and 1 oz. caraway seeds. No change need 
be made in the method of handling if a slightly larger quantity of fruit is 
used, but the dough will require longer proof in tins. If the quantity of 
fruit is increased the weight of the loaves is decreased or the price raised 
to meet the extra cost; it is usually more convenient to reduce the weight, 
because of the need for keeping this sort of bread always at one price. 

There is, in some districts, a demand for a richer fruit loaf than that 
described above. This sort of loaf is best made with a sponge or ferment. 
Rich Fruit which may be prepared thus. Measure out 2| qt. milk and 
Loaf. 2| qt. water; mix and raise to 104° F. Mix 7 oz. of yeast 

thoroughly in a small quantity of this liquor, then whisk the whole 
well together, add 1 lb. of sugar, and then thoroughly beat in 10 lb. of 
flour. This will ferment very vigorously, and if kept in a warm place 
should rise and drop 2 in. or more in 45 minutes. Weigh on the board or 
into the trough 16 lb. moderately strong flour, and rub well in 3 lb. lard 
or other tasteless fat. Make a bay and place round it 3 lb. sultana raisins, 
3 lb. currants, and 1 lb. orange peel cut into small pieces about the size of 
currants. When the ferment has dropped, dough is made, no more liquor 
being required, but 3 oz. salt and 3 lb. sugar are dissolved in the ferment. 
After lying 1 hour, at the end of which the dough is well kneaded, it 


should be ready for scaling. About 12 oz. of this dough for 2d., and 1^ lb. 
for Sd. are the sizes most saleable. As this dough is somewhat richer 
than the others given, it is more sluggish in proof, but if kept at a 
moderate heat in the tins, should be ready for the oven in about forty-five 
minutes. Owing to the greater quantity of sugar in this dough, and the 
larger proportion of fruit, the loaves keep moist for several days. 

It is often useful to make a speciality of a fruit loaf, and this should 
be done by making it of superior quality and different in shape from the 
ordinary; but when the quality and shape are determined, no special 
effort should be spared to keep it always alike. A very P*""'^ ^°^^' 
superior loaf may be made thus. Make a sponge in a jar with, say, 1 qt. 
water at 104° F., 4 oz. yeast, 2 oz. sugar, and 2 lb. flour. This sponge will 
rise and drop in a little over half an hour. Make dough then with 3 pt. 
milk and 1 pt. water mixed and heated to 100° F., 11 lb. patent grade flour, 
8 oz. butter, 2 oz. sugar, 1^ oz. salt, and 3 lb. sultana raisins carefully 
picked and cleaned. This dough will be softer than for ordinary bread, 
but stiffer than bun dough. It should be allowed to stand in a warm 
place for about one and a half hour, and then weighed into the sizes 
desired. To make a distinction between this and other fruit loaves, it may 
be made in the form of a twist and proved on a baking sheet. It will take 
twenty-five to thirty minutes to prove, but must not be made too light. 
After baking, it may be dusted over with icing sugar instead of being 

It may be noted that none of the recipes given above, except one, 
contains a large quantity of sugar, nor any eggs. Fruit loaves that are 
sweet are more in the nature of buns, and do not hold 
customers so steadily as those that are soft and nicely 
coloured without sweetness, except that naturally belonging to the dried 
fruit they contain. Eggs in bread do not enhance its value in anything 
like proportion to their cost, and the loaves containing them really seem to 
eat drier when stale than if made without. Eggs have, of course, a special 
value in producing a rich colour, and in increasing the salt in 
dietetic value of the bread. The small quantity of salt Sweet Loaves, 
added removes the unpleasant freshness which is so apparent even when 
much sugar is used without salt. 

The recipe given which contains the largest quantity of sugar should 
really be classed as one for a bun loaf. This article is in great favour in 
many parts of Ireland and in Scotland, particularly at Christmas and New 
Year season. In the north of Ireland this is made either in the form of 
a fruit loaf in 2-lb. and 4-lb. sizes, the latter selling as high as 3s. 6d. to 
48., or in flat shapes baked on baking sheets, and called harm 
hrak or brack. The price is determined by the quantity of 
fruit in it. The usual method, and not the worst, is to make a strong 
dough, or take a portion of bread dough and work in the other ingredients 
afterwards. For this purpose make a dough with 20 lb. moderately strong 
flour, 4 oz. salt, 2 oz. sugar, 6 oz. yeast, and 1 gal. water at 100° F. Allow 


this dough to lie 2 hours; then thoroughly work in 2 lb. butter, 2 lb. sugar, 
and 8 eggs; and when this is all thoroughly mixed, work in 2h lb. sultanas, 
2 lb. currants, and 1 lb. orange peel cut fine. This tearing and mixing will 
have made the dough close and tough, so it should lie an hour to recover 
before scaling. If wanted for barm brak, the pieces are from 1 to 1| lb. 
They are moulded round, then pinned out to about 7 in. in diameter and 
1 in. thick, placed on greased baking sheets, and glazed over with strong 
egg wash; then placed in a warm but dry prover. Owing to the large 
quantity of fruit they contain, they will take quite an hour to prove, and 
Irish Fruit will not then be bulky, as they are not intended to be extremely 
Loaves. light. Before setting, they are again washed over with glaze and 
stabbed with a thin skewer to prevent blisters. They must be thoroughly 
baked, and in an oven not above 420° F. The fruit loaves made in tins 
receive the same treatment, and are also glazed on top, but not stabbed 
with a skewer. However, they need long proof, careful watching in baking, 
and must be very thoroughly done. 

In Scotland the old-fashioned bun loaf is made in a different way. 
The centre is the loaf proper, but is covered round with a paste 
Scotch Bun made of fermented dough and contains butter as shorten- 
Loaves. j^g Pqj. ^]^q interior a straight dough made as follows is 

suitable. 20 lb. flour has 2 oz. mixed spice sifted through it and 2 lb. 
lard well rubbed in. A bay is made, and 2 lb. sultanas, 2 lb. raisins, 
and 1 lb. cut orange peel placed round it; 2^ lb. sugar is weighed into 
the bay, and 3 oz. salt. Dough is made with 2 qt. milk and 2J qt. 
water mixed together and heated to 100" F. 5 oz. yeast is dissolved 
in a small quantity of the liquor, and the whole is then made into 
dough. This may lie for about three hours and be kneaded once in that 
time, after which it may be scaled into pieces of the sizes desired. The 
outer crust may consist of 5 lb. bread dough, into which 10 oz. of butter 
has been worked till quite smooth. For each 2-lb. centre about 6 oz. of 
Covering for this covering dough will be sufficient. The piece is pinned 
Bun Loaves, q^^ i[\\ about ^ in. thick and more or less square. It is then 
well washed over with water and the fruit centre placed on it. Corners 
are cut out, and the four flaps thus formed turned up so as completely 
to cover the centre dough. This is pressed all over with the hands to 
ensure that the crust sticks to the centre dough and to prevent blisters. 
The whole loaf is then turned over, placed in a greased tin, and pressed 
well into the sides and corners, so that the centre at first is a little thinner 
than the sides. These loaves are generally made in flat oblong shapes. 
As the centre proves, the outer crust stretches with it, but the crust must 
be docked over on top, when first placed in tins, to prevent blisters. 
The loaves, kept in a warm place, will be ready for the oven in about 
forty-five minutes. They are then carefully stabbed with a skewer, and 
glazed over and baked. 

This bun loaf seems to be only a lighter and cheaper form of the 
Scotch bun, which can hardly be described as a loaf, as it consists 


wliolly of fruit; but since it contains fermented dough this seems the most 
suitable place to give the recipe and method of making. This bun also 
consists of a centre mostly of fruit, with an outer crust of Scotch 
fermented dough shortened with butter. For the interior, Currant Bun. 
take 7 lb. bread dough and mix thoroughly in it 14 oz. butter and 6 oz. 
mixed spice. When mixed spread out on the table, and weigh 10 lb. seed- 
less or stoned raisins, 10 lb. cleaned and washed currants, 3 lb. orange 
peel, and IJ lb. whole almonds (blanched). Place all these together on 
the top of the dough and tear the latter up amongst the fruit, gradually 
incorporating all together into a stiff dough, in which the dough and fruit 
are evenly mixed. This operation may require quite half an hour, turning 
the mixture backwards and forwards in small pieces, spreading and press- 
ing to get the fruit to stick. When well mixed and holding together, it 
may be allowed to rest for an hour. It is then cut into pieces and blocked 
to size. This is done by dusting well the inside of the tin to be ultimately 

used for bakinof the bun, and pressing the piece of fruit „, , . „ 

T, • 1 -1 1 ii , 'i ii Blocking Buns, 

mixture well into the sides and corners so that it exactly 

takes the shape of the tin; it can then be dumped out and will retain its 
shape. One tin of each size may be used to block all the buns of the 
respective sizes. The paste or crust for covering these is made by working 
2 lb. of butter into 9 lb. of bread dough till it is quite smooth. P'or a 
bun weighing 3 lb., 6 oz. will be sufficient for cover; 8 oz. for 4 lb.; 
12 oz. for 6 lb.; > and so on. The cover is pinned out till it is a little 
more than twice the size of the bun it is to cover: it is washed over, 
the bun placed in the centre, corner pieces are cut out and placed on the 
bun where the cover will otherwise be thinnest; then the flaps are drawn 
over so as completely to cover the central part. It is then squeezed up 
thicker by pressing on the sides and ends; the tin in which it is to be 
baked, already well greased with cold lard, is placed over it, and tin and 
bun are together turned over. It is then squeezed out with the heel of 
the hand again to fill the tin properly, the centre of the bun being made 
a little thinner than at the sides. It is at once docked with a biscuit- 
docker to prevent blisters forming under the crust, and is also washed 
over with a little milk or water. After lying in this condition for an 
hour, the buns are stabbed all over with a skewer and washed on top 
with a weak egg glaze, and baked in an oven not above 400° F. One 
weighing 3 lb. will bake in 1| to 2 hours; the larger sizes take a pro- 
portionately greater time. As the top crust becomes hard Baking Times 
while baking long before the bun is sufficiently done, it is ^°^ Buns, 
necessary, when trying whether it is properly baked, to turn it out of the 
tin and feel the centre of the bottom part with the finger. If done enough 
the bottom will be quite hard; if underdone, it will be soft and leathery, 
in which case it must be put back in the tin and allowed to stand some 
time longer in oven. When thoroughly baked the buns are turned out on 
their tops and allowed to lie in this condition until they are thoroughly 
cold before handling. This is a very old recipe for Scotch currant bun, 


and has always given great satisfaction to customers. As the flavour is 
a special consideration, the spice mixture, which is also very old, may be 
given here, although it hardly belongs to bread-making; but it is suitable 
for all purposes in which spice is used. The quantities are: — Ground 
Mixed Spice coriander, 8 oz.; ground cinnamon, 8 oz.; ground ginger, 4 oz.; 
for Buns. ground nutmeg, 4 oz.; white pepper, 2 oz. These, of course, 
are intimately mixed together, and kept in a closed tin or wide-mouthed 
bottle for use as required. 



Biscuits are not bread, and yet can hardly be classed as confectionery; 
so there is a little difficulty in allocating the proper place in this w^ork for 
instructions concerning them. Except in Scotland, there is not a very large 
biscuit trade now done by ordinary bakers, and even there the products of 
Hand-made ^^^ biscuit factories have nearly destroyed a trade that twenty 
Biscuits. years ago formed a considerable portion of the work in nearly 
every Scottish bakery. There is still, however, a demand for hard biscuits 
of the water variety, and for ship biscuits, in the neighbourhood of fishing 
stations. In any case there is from time to time a return to old fashions, 
and on that account alone it is as well that bakers should retain the know- 
ledge of how to make those articles which were in high favour with past 
generations of customers and the old - fashioned amongst the present 
generation; in some localities these are still well worth catering for. 

Whatever kinds of hard biscuits are made, their quality depends on the 
character of the flour more than on anything else. Flours that are strong 
Nature of Flour ^^^ particularly suitable for bread are unsuitable for biscuit 
for Biscuits. work. For the latter very soft flours are needed, but not 

those which are soft only because they contain a high proportion of starch 
and a low proportion of soft gluten. Flours of this kind, of which some 
of the very soft American are good examples, produce biscuits that are thin 
and flinty and altogether unsatisfactory. Good biscuit flours are those 
which have very ductile glutens, and may have as much as 8 or 9 per cent 
without being too strong. French flours made wholly from French wheat 
are very suitable for biscuits; so also are flours from sound English wheats, 
French, English, ^^^ those from the good wheat areas of Scotland, although 
and Scotch Flour, some of the poorer Scotch wheat has not sufficient strength 
even for this purpose. In hard biscuits there is not as a rule any aerating 
or raising agent, so that the extent to which the biscuits spring in the oven 
What makes depends more on the expansion of the starch of the flour, 
Biscuits spring? but to some extent on the lifting tendency of the steam 
generated during baking. These springing effects in their turn are modified 


for good or evil according to the manner in which the dough has been 
manipulated before coming to the oven: if properly handled, the biscuits 
will be short and plump; if badly treated, they will be thin and hard, 
although in both cases the ingredients may have been entirely alike. When 
results of this sort are not caused by the mode of working, but, as already 
noticed, are due to the nature of the flour, the only thing to do is to add 
a small quantity of some aerating agent, either carbonate use of Aerating 
of ammonia or soda and cream of tartar. The quality Agents in Biscuits. 
of the biscuit also depends a good deal on the state of the oven, one that is 
hot producing much better results than one that is cold, with the reservation 
only that very thick biscuits cannot be baked in an oven suitably hot for 
thin ones, as they will acquire too much colour before they are baked in 
their centres. 

At one time for ship's biscuits nothing was used but dressed seconds 
flour, but now flour of household class is more common. The following 
quantities and method will be found to produce satisfactory 
biscuits. Weigh 40 lb. flour on to the table, or, if a small 
machine is available, into the machine. To make biscuit dough of this will 
require l|-lf gal. of water, in which 6 oz, of salt should be dissolved; no 
other ingredients are used. If dough is made in the machine, no special 
instructions are needed except that it should be made thoroughly. If it has 
to be made by hand, more care is needed to prevent scrap forming. The 
flour is formed into a bay on the table, and the salt placed How to make 
in its centre. The whole of the water is then measured into Biscuit Dough, 
the bay, and after the salt has been dissolved, the flour is drawn in until the 
whole is a mass of lumps of flour and water. This mixture is thrown back 
and forward with the hands until it appears to be all alike — no large lumps 
in one part and dry flour in another. This powdery mixture has then to be 
taken a little at a time, and rubbed very hard between the heel of the hand 
and the table, until it sticks together into little pieces of dough. This sort 
of manipulation must be repeated with the whole mass until it is really firm 
dough, the elbow being brought into use to stick it together at the last part 
of the operation. This dough should not be run through Rolling or 
the biscuit rollers at once, but should be allowed to rest for Braking Dough, 
half an hour or so. It is then well braked on the rollers, the sign of com- 
pletion of this operation being perfect smoothness of surface and a close 
smooth surface internally when cut. It may happen that in braking the 
dough the surface cracks badly. When this is the case, it is when Dough 
best to wash the dough over with water and allow it to lie cracks, 
covered up for some time, after which it will be more pliable. The dough 
should lie another hour or so before being finally made into biscuits. If 
these are hand-made, some skill is needed in moulding or chafiing the 
individual biscuits — an intelligible description of that operation is hopeless 
— but if any considerable quantity is required, a small brake Biscuit-cutting 
and cutting machine should be obtained. The biscuits are Machine, 
rolled out about a quarter of an inch thick, then cut and docked at one 


operation, if a machine is in use. If hand-made, each biscuit has first to 
be moulded round, then rolled out with a rolling-pin, and then docked. 
Biscuits made by hand are credited with being freer and "shorter" than 
those made on a machine. The sign of readiness when the biscuits are 
baking is an unyielding hardness on being pressed with the fingers, although 
To know when correct observation in this respect really only comes with 
Biscuits are practice. These biscuits are much better when baked on 
^ ^ ' the oven bottom than on tins, although in modern factories 

the latter method is always adopted. If ship biscuits are intended for long 
voyages, or to be kept a long time, baking only is not sufficient to prevent 
their becoming mouldy or maggoty: for such circumstances they have to 
Drying to ^^ very thoroughly dried for a week or two in a hot room, 

prevent Mould. It may interest those who are not familiar with the biscuit 
trade to know that from 1 cwt. of flour used not quite one hundred 
pounds of baked biscuits are obtained. 

A biscuit called sometimes cheese biscuit and sometimes water biscuit 
is made much in the same manner as above, only a better quality of flour 
Water or ^^ used, and the biscuit is made very thin, and, as a rule, 

Cheese Biscuits, smaller. This sort of biscuit, if hand-made, is pinned out 
to about one-eighth of an inch thick, either singly or in sheets, and docked 
two at a time, and drawn asunder afterwards. They should be baked on 
tins, and must be thoroughly dried; otherwise they are very tough. In 
Yeast in these, as in the ship biscuits, there are no ingredients used but 
Biscuits, flour, water, and salt. Another sort of cheese biscuit, which still 
finds favour, is made with a quantity of yeast in it. For a sack of flour 
8 or 10 oz. of yeast is used, and after dough is made, it is allowed to lie 
about two hours before being braked. The mode of handling is similar to 
that already described, but these biscuits are made small and thick, and in 
consequence of the yeast are lighter than the other, usually in fact rather 
hollow in the centre. 

Cabin biscuits are made with flour, water, and salt, but in addition they 

contain about 1 oz. of lard to each lb. of flour used. This biscuit is made 

about 3 in. in diameter, and belongs essentially to the 

hand-made sort. The dough should be stiff". It is either 

pinned out quite flat or slightly cupped, so that it can, if desired, be spread 

thick with butter and cream cheese. 

Cupped biscuits proper belong to a richer class, and for these the 
following may be used: flour (soft and white), 16 lb.; butter, or half butter 
and half lard, 1 lb,; sugar, 12 oz.; ammonia, about ^ oz.; 
"PP* ■ water, 2 qt. and 1 pt. This biscuit is made as already 

described, but cannot under any circumstances be cut out in a machine; 
each biscuit must be chafl'ed separately. The cupping operation is done by 
a dexterous use of an ordinary thin biscuit rolling-pin. The success of the 
operation depends on the dough being tough and more or less elastic, and this 
latter property is produced by the manner in which the biscuit is moulded. 
The operation of cupping cannot be described properly, but it consists in 


Thomas Fletcher, bom in Liverpool in 1850, started business 
in his native town, but subsequently removed to Birmingham, 
where he conducts a large and successful bakery. He took an 
active part in founding the National Association of Master Bakers, 
of which he was President in 1887 and 1902. He has been a 
member of Birmingham Town Council since 1904. 

Alfred Taylor, of the Old Red House, Bath, was born in 
Wiltshire in 1840, and served a good part of his apprenticeship 
in the bakery of which he is now proprietor. At one time he also 
had a farm and a cheese and butter factory. He was President 
of the National Association in 1893-94, and is a Director of the 
Trades, Markets, and Exhibitions, Limited. He is an Alderman 
of the City of Bath. 

Robert Kirkland, born at Airdrie in 1853, gave up banking 
to join his brother in a baking and catering business in Liverpool. 
This business is now known as the Liverpool Vienna Bakery 
Company, Limited, and has Mr. Kirkland as Chairman. Mr. 
Kirkland is also Chairman of Fletcher's, Limited, Birmingham, 
He was appointed Baker to Queen Victoria, with authority to use 
the Royal Arms, and he is also baker to the Emperor of Austria 
and the King of Spain. He was President of the National Associ- 
ation in 1890-91. 

Henry Matthews, bom at Chudleigh, Devonshire, in 1821, 
learned the baking trade under his father. After a brief London 
experience' he started in business in Plymouth in 1845, ^^^ '^ now 
head of Matthews & Sons, Limited, the largest baking business 
in the county. He was President of the National Association 
in 1891-92. He has been a member of Plymouth Town Council 
and a Poor Law Guardian. 










not allowing the pressure of the pin to pass the centre of the biscuit at 
each stroke, so that while the edges become evenly thinned down, the centre 
remains thick, this thickness being removed at the last few strokes of the 
rolling-pin. The elasticity of the dough draws up the sides under such 
circumstances. The original purpose of cupping biscuits was evidently to 
admit of their holding a supply of jam or stewed fruit when about to be 
eaten. This recipe makes a good short-eating biscuit, the pinch of ammonia 
helping in some degree to make it light also. 

Abe7"nethy biscuits have a reputation associated to some extent with the 
name of the famous physician. They really belong to the shortbread class 
of goods, and among all the hand-made biscuits are likely longest Abemethy 
to remain in public favour and to survive the rivalry of the Biscuits, 
machine-made article. The following is the recipe which has more than a 
local reputation: flour, 8 lb. (fine French); butter, 1;^ lb.; lard, 1^ lb.; sugar, 
1^ lb.; water, 1 qt. and 2 gills. If the flour is suitable and care taken in 
handling the dough — for with so much butter, &c., it requires some care — 
this biscuit should spring well and be plump without any Aerating Agents 
other raising agent; but if, on account of the flour or other in Biscuits, 
cause, there is a tendency to flintiness, then ^ oz. bicarbonate of soda and 
I oz. cream of tartar may be used with advantage. Owing to these biscuits 
being rich, the dough is liable to crack when braking or when moulding; 
on this account it must not be too stifl", nor should it be made with less than 
the proper quantity of water. This last precaution may seem superfluous, 
as the instruction not to make the dough stiff" seems to imply that the 
proper quantity of water is used in its preparation; but this 
dough may really appear to be quite soft, even with a good 
deal less than the proper water, owing to the butter and lard melting with 
the heat of the hands. But dough made soft by this means is so short that 
it cannot be moulded at all, and presents when baked a rough and greasy 

In Glasgow, where Abernethy biscuits are made by hand on a very 
large scale even in the bread factories, the mixture used is as follows: 
flour (soft), 16 lb.; sugar, 2 lb.; lard, 5 lb.; butter, 1 lb.; and qj^^ ^^ 
2^ qt. water. This mixture, it will be noticed, contains more Abemethy 
fat than the other given above, and fat, too, that has a low ^'scuits. 
melting-point. In consequence of this it is necessary to allow the dough 
to stand a long time before it is moulded into biscuits; otherwise these 
crack all round the edges. This dough is so greasy, espe- Effects of 
cially in warm weather, that it can hardly be chaffed at Excessive Fat 
all, but the pieces have to be rolled like buns, and then '" Dough, 
pinned out smartly. These biscuits have the quality of eating very short — 
in fact, not unlike ordinary shortbread. 

Bath Oliver biscuits are a speciality still made in great quantities 
in Bath, and in which some of the leading houses take Bath Oliver Bis- 
great pride. There is considerable diversity in the recipes cuits. Fermented, 
used as well as in the mode of manufacture, but all agree in making the 

VOL. I. 24 


biscuit very thin and rich with butter only. Some use yeast in their 
manufacture, others do not. Rub 2 lb. of best butter into 8 lb. flour, 
and make into a stiff" dough with about 2| pt. milk in which 2 oz. yeast 
and 2 oz. sugar have been dissolved. If the butter is quite fresh, f oz. 
of salt may be added. Allow this dough to ferment in a moderately 
Mode of warm place for about 1| hour, then brake the dough till its 
Handling, skin is quite smooth. Allow it to rest for a little, then reduce 
the dough in pieces on the rollers till it is about % in. thick. Cut these 
out, generally two layers at once; dock with a plain docker and allow 
to stand for some time; then bake in a very warm oven. 

A biscuit equally good and less troublesome is made without any 
yeast whatever. For this the quantities are: flour, 8 lb.; butter, fresh 
and sweet, 2 lb.; salt, | oz. Dough is made with about 1 pt. water, 1;^ pt. 
Bath Olivers, milk, and 3 eggs. The dough is handled in exactly the 
Unfermented. same way as for the other hard biscuits, resting after being 
made, and again after braking. When they are cut out and docked the 
biscuits are baked in a hot oven. 

Seed biscuits are an old-fashioned sort made as follows. A dough 

much softer than for the other kinds of hard biscuits already described 

_ , _.. . is made with 8 lb. soft flour into which 1 lb. of lard has 
Seed Biscuits. . . , , , 

been rubbed; 1 oz. yeast is mixed with nearly 3 pt. water, 

and I oz. salt is also dissolved in it. The whole is then made into 

dough, about 2 oz. caraway seeds being mixed at the same time. This 

dough is allowed to prove for about 2 hours, after which 2 oz. carbonate 

of ammonia is thoroughly mixed in it, and the dough then braked till 

smooth. It is allowed to lie to recover, and is then cut out and moulded 

or chaffed into biscuits in the ordinary way, then pinned out quite 

flat to about ^ in. thick, docked, and baked on baking sheets. On 

account of the absence of sugar these biscuits are quite white, but they 

are very light and open in texture. If butter is used instead of lard, 

and 1 lb. of sugar added to the mixture and the seeds kept out, the 

biscuits are then called butter shorts. The old method 

of working was to make dough for these biscuits with a 

small quantity of home-made barm. In the recipe given above ordinary 

dry yeast is substituted and the time the dough requires to lie very much 

shortened, but the article produced is much the same as that made by 

the old method. 

Bakers do not now make cracknel biscuits; yet they can still be made 

profitably, and their preparation may serve to fill in odd time. The 

following recipe and method will be found satisfactory. Make 

a smooth dough with 3^ lb. flour, 6 oz. castor sugar, 8 eggs, 

and about | pt. water, in which is dissolved | oz. carbonate of ammonia. 

Brake this dough till smooth, then allow to rest for an hour or so. 

Roll out then to about \ in. thick, dock with a plain and wide-toothed 

docker, and cut with a 4-in. cutter, afterwards cutting each of those rounds 

into four three-cornered pieces; or the biscuits may be cut round or oval 


with a small cutter and afterwards docked with a docker of the same 
shape but of smaller size. When the biscuits are cut out, a large pan of 
boiling water should be ready, and as many of the biscuits g^jjj^^ Process 
dropped into it as will conveniently cover the surface. 
These will sink to the bottom when first put in, but will soon rise to 
the surface, and if allowed to boil a little will gradually acquire a 
cupped form. When this occurs they have been boiled sufficiently. The 
biscuits are then lifted out with a wire spoon. Better still, cooling and 
a strainer may be fitted in the boiling pan something like Soaking, 
that in an ordinary fish-kettle, by means of which the whole of the 
biscuits boiled at one time can be lifted out at once. They are transferred 
from the boiling water into another pan of cold water, in Baking 
which they are allowed to lie for two hours, after which they Cracknels, 
are strained and baked on wires in a hot oven. When done they should 
be cupped, glazed on the outside with a bright colour, and soft, dry, and 
creamy-white inside. 

A good selling, rather soft biscuit, is made as follows. Use 8 lb. flour 
(soft), 1 lb. butter, 1 lb. sugar, 6 eggs, 2 oz. carbonate of 
ammonia, and about f oz. ground ginger. These are rolled 
round and then flattened out on the baking sheet by hand. They spread 
slightly and spring thick in the centre. 

The following is the recipe for a favourite rice biscuit: 4 lb. soft flour, 
1 oz. bicarbonate of soda, 2 oz. cream of tartar, 1^ lb. sugar, 12 oz. butter, 
12 oz. lard, 8 oz. ground rice, 8 eggs, and 1 pt. milk. The 
dough is comparatively soft, is not braked in any way, but 
is divided into pieces the size of the biscuits. These are rolled round 
and flattened out slightly on baking sheets and baked in a warm oven. 
They spread slightly, and crack on top. 

Parliament Cakes or Parleys are another form of old-fashioned biscuit 
or cake, which was at one time used principally to give to children who 
came to the baker's shop for the household bread. The dough parliament 
was invariably made in large quantities, and stocked in barrels Cakes: Old 
to be worked up afterwards as required. The aerating agents '^^^^o*^- 
were pearlash and alum, used in the proportions of two of the former to 
one of the latter. The dough was made with about 2 lb. of treacle or 
syrup to each 3 lb. of flour, and to that about 1 oz. of pearlash and 
^ oz. of alum would be added. This dough was not worked up until it 
was two or three weeks old, and on occasions could be kept for a year. 
The modern method of making parleys is much less troublesome. Use 
8 lb. flour, 2 oz. bicarbonate of soda, no acid, 2 oz. ground Parleys: 
caraway. The dough is made stiff" with golden syrup: New Method, 
about 5 lb. may be required. No acid is used, because the syrup already 
has some in its composition. This dough is at once rolled out into long 
sheets about -J in. in thickness, and cut out with either a round or oblong 
fluted cutter— docking is not necessary — and placed on baking sheets 
slightly greased and splashed with water. They are washed over with 


water and baked in a comparatively cold oven. They are quite soft when 
Baking and baked, although an impression made on the surface to try 
Keeping. them will disappear if baking is sufficient. They become quite 
hard and crisp on cooling, and will retain this crispness if kept in a closed 

Scotch ParJcins belong to the same family as Parleys. For these the 

mixture is as follows: medium cut oatmeal, 3 lb.; soft flour, 3 lb.; 

bicarbonate of soda, 2 oz.; lard, 8 oz. ; sugar, 12 oz.: golden 

Scotch Parkins ' c^ ' •• o 

syrup, 4 lb.; mixed spice, 2 oz. Dough is made in the 
usual way, and the pieces for the separate biscuits at once broken off. 
These are rolled round, then well flattened out on a baking sheet slightly 
greased and splashed with water. They are then washed over with egg, 
and half of a split almond is placed in the centre of each. These spread 
a good deal, and present a marly or cracked appearance all over the top. 
They exhibit the same signs of being sufficiently baked as parleys, but 
like them also become hard when cold. They also soften if exposed to 
the air, especially if the atmosphere is at all moist. Another recipe for 
Scotch Parkins is: 3 lb. oatmeal, 3 lb. flour, 4 lb. treacle, 12 oz. lard, 12 oz. 
sugar, 1 oz. bicarbonate of soda, 1 oz. cream of tartar. The mode of mani- 
pulation is the same as above. 



Many who are troubled with indigestion are advised by medical men to 
€at bread only that has been well toasted. The toast is at times difficult to 
Toast for obtain, and the requirement of these people soon degenerates 
Indigestion, {^^q ^ supply of ready-made toast in the form of rusks. The 
old-fashioned rusks of English confectioners' shops were called tops and 
bottovis, and were usually made from plain stale buns left from day to day. 
These were cut in halves and toasted on baking sheets in the oven, being 
Tops and ^s a rule turned over so that both sides were equally well 
Bottoms, browned. The bottoms were, of course, of nearly the same 
thickness all over; the tops were rounded on one side. When the sale 
for rusks is considerable, it is better to make a special dough as follows. 
Make a ferment by whisking together in a jar 1 pt. milk, 1 pt. water 
— together at 100° F. — 4 oz. sugar, 8 oz. flour, and 4 oz. yeast. Allow 
this to stand in a warm place for about 20 minutes, when it will have 
risen and dropped. Make a soft dough then with 4 lb. flour (home-milled 
patent), 4 oz. sugar, i oz. salt, 8 oz. butter or lard, and 
3 eggs. This dough is then allowed to stand about 50 
minutes, and is weighed into pieces about 1 lb. each, and moulded into 
long flat shapes and placed in long tins, so that the dough is about 1 in. 


thick. This is proved at an ordinary bakehouse temperature and not 
forced by steam in any way for half an hour, and then baked in a hot 
oven. This produces a number of very light, long square loaves about 2 in. 
deep and about 3 in. wide. These are turned out and kept for one or two 
days till quite stale, and are then trimmed so as to make them all of equal 
thickness. They are next cut through the centre, then into little oblong 
pieces about 3 in. long, 1 in. wide, and ^ in. thick. These pieces are set out 
neatly and close together on clean baking sheets, and nicely browned in a 
warm oven. 

In making rusks in this way, it is necessary to take care that the dough 
is not overproved; otherwise it cuts very crumbly. To prevent blisters, 
and ensure a fine and even texture, the dough is better baked ^^ Prevent 
under covers, the width and depth mentioned above, and Crumbling 
about 14 in. long; or if only 1 in. deep, then the loaves will ^" isters. 
not require splitting before cutting into rusks. As malt extract gives 
flavour to rusks, besides adding to their nutritive value, 1| oz. of extract 
may be used instead of the sugar in the dough mixed with the ferment 
after the latter is ready; or it may be prepared by mixing with 4 oz. of 
flour and ^ pt. water, and kept for an hour about a tem- Malt Extract 
perature of 150° F., then added to the dough at the same time ^" Rusks, 
as the ferment. If this is done, | lb. more flour will be required in the 

In Germany and Holland the trade in rusks is very large, and these 

really take the place of our biscuits. There the usual shape is round. The 

rusks are made wholly with milk and of soft dough. Each German and 

little piece, sufficient for two rusks, is rolled round and Dutch Rusks. 

pinned out flat, then baked under an iron cover about 3| in. diameter 

and f in. deep. This cover has one or more holes in it to allow the 

escape of air as the dough proves. When baked, the rusks are like thick 

soft biscuits the full thickness of the little covers under which they are 

baked. Thej^^ are kept in a cool room for about two days, and are then cut 

horizontally by an ingenious machine into two pieces. These are dried in 

the oven, as already described. Another form is made in ., , r »/, , 

. "^ , . . Mode of Makmg 

long bars, which are then cut into very thin oblong slices, Rusks in 
and after toasting are covered on top thinly with water Germany, &c. 
icing or whipped white of egg, and then with different flavoured sugars. 

It is common for customers to stipulate that the rusks should not be 
sweet. In this case the sugar in the above recipe may be left out of the 
dough but still retained in the sponge, the quantity of salt being increased 
to 1 oz. in the dough only. 

Customers who are troubled with diabetes in any form are most par- 
ticular as to the kind of bread they eat, and although this is, as a rule, 
obtained fiom the few bakers who make a speciality of ^j^ Diabetics 
such bread, the ordinary baker is very frequently asked need Gluten 
to supply local customers. As this disease requires that ^'■*^^- 
neither sugar, nor any starchy matters which the organs can transform 


into sugar, should be used as part of their food, and as, at the same time, 
it is necessary that they should obtain as much proteid matter as possible, 
Preparing gluten bread is usually recommended to them, and the baker 

Crude Gluten is asked to supply it. It is possible to make gluten bread 
°^ ^^^ ' of a sort by washing out the gluten from ordinary flour. 

When this is to be done, take about 1 lb. dough and manipulate it with 
the fingers in a pail of clean cold water, teasing it out and squeezing 
alternately until it seems to be free from starch. When this is done, the 
Use of Starchy water with the starchy sediment may be used to mix with 
Sediment. ^}jg ordinary water for bread. The gluten after washing 

should be broken into pieces about 2 oz. Each piece is then rolled well 
between the hands to press as much as possible of the water out, after 
which it is placed on a greased baking sheet and allowed to stand for 
Moulding about half an hour before being placed in the oven. When 

Gluten Loaves, ready, the loaves are best baked under covers, and in an 
oven at a temperature about 360° to 380° F. Pieces about the size men- 
tioned will require nearly an hour to bake, and they should not, if possible, 
be touched until quite done; otherwise they collapse and are very tough. 
The use of the covers gives the gluten loaves the pale colour so much 
desired. When sufficiently baked, and they should be quite hard on the 
outside, the loaves are placed on one side till cold. They are then cut into 
thin slices in the same way as for rusks, and toasted quite dry. This 
Toasting toasting is necessary, as the inside is rather stringy and 

Gluten Bread, tough. When the slices are cut, and before toasting, they 
can be dusted over with salt or any desired flavouring substance, as the 
gluten itself has a very insipid taste. 

It is sometimes required to use eggs and butter in the gluten bread. 
Disadvantages ^^^ ^^® incorporation of these things is impossible in the 
of using gluten directly washed from the flour as described above. 

Fres G uten. Yqj. other reasons it is not quite satisfactory to wash the 
gluten direct in this way; amongst other things, the resultant bread is 
Why Gluten usually rather close round the outside with large holes in 
is Allowed the centre. It is to get over this trouble that the pieces of 
*° '^" gluten are allowed to lie some time after moulding. 

Fortunately there is no need to wash gluten direct from flour, as there 
are several quite satisfactory brands of gluten flour now being sold. With 
gluten flour the following quantities and method will be found to give 
Rich Gluten good results. As Only small quantities are usually required 
Bread. g^^ once, 18 OZ. of gluten flour is mixed with | oz. salt, and 

12 oz. butter finely rubbed into it; two eggs are beaten up, and mixed 
with about If pt. of lukewarm water. The whole of these ingredients are 
then thoroughly mixed together. As directed above, it is better for the 
baker without special appliances to make the gluten loaves only small. 
How to This dough is allowed to lie for half an hour or so, then is 

Handle Gluten, broken into pieces, say, of 3 oz. each. If the hands are 
kept wet, there is no difficulty in handling the dough. These pieces are 


rolled round and placed on a greased baking sheet, and a bread pan placed 
over each; then allowed to lie for half an hour before baking. The oven 
temperature, as already stated, should not be above 380° F. Three-ounce 
loaves will take at least two hours to bake, and should not Time Gluten 
be touched meanwhile. After baking, the loaves are cooled, Rolls take 

. to Bake 

cut up, and toasted as described above. It is usual to have 
a quantity of yeast given in recipes for gluten bread, but yeast adds 
nothing to the lightness but seems rather to make it more Yeast of no Value 
sodden. The time of lying after moulding results in '" Gluten Bread, 
softening the gluten, so that when placed in the oven it retains a con- 
tinuous texture, free from very large holes, and ensures its becoming 
very light and bulky. A loaf of 3 oz. will form a ball size of 3-oz. 
about 4 in. in diameter. Gluten Roll. 

Diabetic patients have to eat such insipid things that they are glad to 
take anything by way of a change from gluten bread. There are mixtures 
of prepared bran and gluten, and of almonds and gluten, Gluten and 
made into biscuits, for which the following recipe may be Almond Biscuits, 
used. Two pounds gluten flour, through which ^ oz. bicarbonate of soda 
and ^ oz. cream of tartar have been sifted, is thoroughly mixed with 3 lb. 
fine almond meal. One pellet of saccharin is used to sweeten. This will 
require about 2 pt. milk or water to make into a moderately stiff dough. 
It is allowed to lie for some time, then pinned out about -J- in. thick and 
docked, and then cut either with a knife or cutter into oblong pieces, and 
the biscuits baked in an oven about 400° F. Variety may be given to the 
biscuits by adding ground ginger or aniseed or vanilla. 

Bran biscuits are made by mixing 1 lb. of prepared bran with | lb. 
gluten, and making this into a firm dough, using a little salt. 
This dough is pinned out, docked, cut, and baked as above. 

A very expensive but really palatable small almond cake, suitable for 
those who can afibrd the price, is made as follows. The materials used are 
1 lb. ground almonds, 20 eggs, and 12 oz. butter. The almonds Rich Almond 
and the yolks of the eggs are rubbed into a smooth paste in Cakes, 
a mixing bowl, and 8 of the egg whites incorporated and the butter also 
worked in. The remaining 12 whites are well beaten to a froth, and 
lightly mixed with the paste formed from the other ingredients. The 
cakes are made very small, and are either baked in patty-pans, which must 
be well greased, or on greased baking sheets as drops. 

For all the goods described above genuine gluten flour should be used. 
There is an American product offered to the trade as gluten spurious 
flour which contains a large proportion of stai^ch, and is Gluten Flour, 
therefore not suitable for those who require bread free, or nearly free, 
from starch. The presence of starch in the gluten flour is Test for starch 
readily detected by the aid of a drop of weak tincture of ^" Gluten Flour, 
iodine: the intensity of the blue colour produced when that is mixed with 
the flour paste will roughly indicate the amount of starch present. 

Sometimes bakers are asked to supply cooked flour either for babies' 


food or for older people with weak stomachs. Flour contains all the 

T, .-• , X. . inojredients suitable for human nourishment, and in such 
Babies Food. . 

proportions, as meet the needs of the body; but the gluten 

of flour, although its most nourishing part, is too tough and tenacious, 

even when baked in bread, to be easily assimilated. If, however, the 

flour is carefully cooked in a dry state, the tenacity of the gluten is quite 

destroyed, and the flour so treated makes a smooth soft paste witli warm 

Effects of water or milk, which has a sweet pleasant taste, and is easily 

Baking Flour, digested and assimilated by even the weakest stomach. To 

prepare flour in this way it is only necessary to spread it in a layer about 

1 in. thick on a clean baking sheet, and keep it in an oven about 360° F. 

(after the bread is all baked is a suitable time) for half an hour or more. 

Method of turning it frequently while the baking is proceeding. The 

Baking Flour, effort should be to bake it thoroughly without browning. 

This flour should then be sifted through a very fine sieve, and kept in a 

close tin or made up in packets for sale. 



Although crusty bread has been prime favourite in most parts of 

England for many years, it is curious to note that the manufacture of 

the crustiest of all varieties, Vienna Bread, has only become general 

within the last twenty-five years or so, although there were a few 

establishments in London at an earlier date where it was made in small 

quantities. Even now it is not extensively used as the bread of the 

household table, but is in greatest demand in restaurants and hotels, 

particularly in those conducted or managed by foreigners. But there is 

little uniformity in the method by which this kind of bread is made, 

and even less uniformity in character amongst the sorts sold as Vienna. 

Because this bread is usually glazed, although this is not an essential 

condition, it is considered justifiable by some bakers to call rolls or 

loaves Vienna if they are only glazed, although they may be made 

from sweet dough and the glaze applied as egcr wash. The matter is 

further confused by the custom of calling all bread Vienna which is 

French baked and glazed in an oven filled with steam, some of this 

and German bread — indeed, the bulk of it — being made after French or 
■p 11 
° ^' German methods rather than after those of Vienna. The 

former are made from very soft dough, more or less toughened by 

mixing, and generally with water only; the latter with at least half 

milk, the dough being stiflfer, and the rolls or bread therefore closer 

in texture, than the first. Those who make Vienna bread in Britain 

are for the most part German bakers, and in consequence the German 


1. Cut or Potato Rolls. 

2. Seed Shoes. 

3. Crescent or Horse-shoe Rolls. 

4. Floured Batons. 

5. Batons. 

6. Kaisers. 

7. Shells. 

8. Seed Rolls or Salt Sticks. 
Q. Twists. 



method generally prevails. This bread, like French, is very light, the 
crumb being tough and open, while the crust, especially if only water 
has been used, is of a bronze -brown colour, and is inclined to be very 
tough when a day old : if part milk has been used, the crust is German 
lighter in colour and more of a golden-yellow shade. Vienna Method, 
bread of the finest sort, as made in Vienna and by those in this country 
who employ Vienna bakers, is smaller in bulk; the crumb Real Vienna 
is close, but short and not at all tough, and the crust is crisp Rolls, 
and free, and remains in this condition even when the bread is a day 

It is usual to make a sponge for Vienna bread, whether of the soft 
or firm dough sort, but in many cases this preliminary stage is left out 
and straight dough made, and with quick-working yeast and plenty of it 
excellent results are obtained in this way. It is not necessary, as some 
suppose, that only Hungarian, or, as it is sometimes called, Vienna flour 
should be used in this kind of bread; indeed, for the soft dough sort, 
already referred to, Hungarian flour by itself is not very suitable, but is- 
better mixed with at least half of much stronger flour. Even for the 
bread made from stiffer dough unmixed Hungarian flour produces very 
small close rolls, although they may be very sweet and bright, so that for 
this sort also a mixture of stronger flour is desirable. The piour 
class of bread-making flours of top grades now made by our for Vienna, 
leading mills makes excellent Vienna bread without any ad- 
mixture whatever of Hungarian. There is, in fact, no need to pay the 
high price of the latter if a top grade British-milled flour is used. 

For Vienna rolls of the light sort, such as are sold in restaurants, the 
following quantities and method may be used. Make a batter sponge 
with 1 gal. water at 100° F., 8 lb. strong flour, and 6 oz. yeast. It is- 
not necessary to use either salt or sugar at this stage, although the 
addition of 1 oz. of sugar will cause the sponge to be ready a little 
sooner. The sponge is made in the usual way. The yeast is first mixed 
with about 1 pt. of the water, so as to make it into a thin paste, free 
from all lumps. This is then mixed well amongst the whole of the 
water, and the sugar, if the small quantity suggested is used, is also 
dissolved in the water. The flour is then mixed in and well beat up 
into a very tough batter with the hands, flapping it over and over for 
the purpose of toughening it, as well as to incorporate as much air in-, 
it as possible. A batter sponge of this kind may be very conveniently 
made in a cake machine, if there is one available. If 
made by hand, the best utensil in which to allow it to 
ferment is a deep small oak tub, or an ordinary lard pail, if large 
enough, suits very well. The sponge should be scraped from the sides 
of the tub in which it has been made, and then very thickly dusted 
over the top with flour. This flour will rise as the sponge rises, and it 
serves very well to keep the top of the sponge from becoming cooler than 
the remainder, as well as to prevent a skin from forming. The sponge 

Vol. I. 26 


should as a rule be allowed to drop, which will generally occur in about 

forty-five minutes to one hour after the sponge has been made. For 

dough, weigh on to the table 14 lb. flour, either home-milled patent, 

^, or half Hungarian and half spring wheat American 

Hungarian Flour. -nv i ^ 1,1, • ^ 

patent. Dissolve 4 oz. salt and 1 oz. sugar in 1^ qt. of 

water at 104" F., but do not dissolve these substances until after the 
water has been used to rinse the tub in which the sponge had been fer- 
menting. Make the dough very thoroughly by pinching and overlapping, 
80 that it becomes quite elastic. This dough is kept in a moderately 
warm situation, the temperature being as nearly as possible the same as 
that of the dough itself, and with a small piece of this size it is not 
difficult to find a corner in the bakery where this condition can be 
obtained. It is almost needless to say that the dough should be kept 
covered up to prevent skinning. In about half an hour after making 
Siz f R 11 ^^® dough will be ready for kneading, and in half an hour 
after that it should be ready for scaling. About 3 oz. is 
the usual size for a roll to be sold in a restaurant for a penny, but 
owing to excessive competition, and the desire of restaurant -keepers for 
a larger number for a shilling, the size varies considerably. 

It is usual, where many rolls are made, to have a bun-divider (fig. 14) 
for sizing the pieces, as a time-saver from weighing them either singly or 
_ . in pairs. The divider cuts out thirty pieces at once; so for 

3-oz. rolls the dough would require to be weighed into pieces 
weighing 5 lb. 10 oz. When cut out the pieces are usually rolled round 
first and well dusted with flour, and allowed to lie for ten or twelve 
minutes before moulding. When moulded the rolls are kept as' " green " 
as possible on the skin; that is, free from flour or cones. This soft dough 
is best suited for making ordinary round rolls that are slit across the 
top with a very sharp knife or an old razor blade just before setting in 
the oven. The instruction given that the rolls are not to be dusted in 
Method of ^^Y ^'^7 ^-^ter moulding — unless they are intended for the 
Proving. variety that are floured and partly white after baking — is to 
ensure that they will take a proper glaze in the oven when steamed, for 
dust or dry skin prevents glazing, however much steam is used. To the 
same end the rolls are not proved on dusted boards, but on boards on 
which are laid fine cotton cloths. On these the rolls are proved all 
upside down. No dust whatever is needed on those cloths, and however 
soft the dough may be the rolls will not stick to the cloths, while the 
surfaces next the cloth will keep soft and moist. If the boards on which 
the rolls are proving are kept away from draughts, as they should be, 
it is not necessary nor advisable to place any covering over the rolls, at 
least none that is in contact with them, such as either a damp or a dry 
cloth. When ready for the oven the rolls have to be turned over before 
being placed on the peel. 

Following exactly the same method, a better-class roll is made by 
using only 2 qt. water in the sponge, with 4 lb. flour, all the yeast, and 


1 oz. sugar; then, when making dough, use 2 qt. milk and 1 qt. water, with 

1 oz. sugar, 4 oz. salt, and 18 lb. flour. While this dough _ „. 

» ' ' -11 Fancy Shapes, 

is quite as soft as the other it will not seem so sticky, and 

is more suitable than that made wholly with water for making such 
fancy shapes as Kaisers, Cannons, Batons, &c., but it is still rather soft for 
producing satisfactory Crescents. 

If it is more convenient to make bread from straight dough the 
following quantities may be used: 40 lb. home-milled patent grade flour, 
8 oz. yeast, 5 oz. salt, 3 oz. sugar, 5 qt. milk, and 4 qt. water, both j^^jj^ ^^^^ 
together at 100^ F. The dough may require a pint or so more Straight 
water if the flour is specially strong. After the dough is well °"^ ' 
made and kept in a warm place for an hour, it should be ready for knead- 
ing. After standing another hour, or an hour and a quarter, it should be 
ready for scaling. The manner of manipulating the rolls after moulding 
does not differ from that already described. On account of milk being 
used in this dough the rolls look very bright, and have a sweet pleasant 

Fig. 17.— Ends of Vienna Loaves Proving in Cloths 

flavour, while the dough is stable and stands a full proof, so that the 
rolls are large and light. They may require thirty to thirty-five minutes 
to prove sufficiently. 

Vienna bread as made in Vienna is, as already noticed, made from 
rather firmer dough than that described above, and with other variations 
in the mode of treatment. It is invariably made with a True Vienna 
sponge, an exceptionally large quantity of yeast is used, and Bread, 
the temperature of the dough is kept comparatively low. For bread of 
thifi class the following ingredients and method should be used. Make 
a tough batter sponge by hand with 10 lb. flour, 1 gal. water at 
100° F., 2 oz. sugar, and 10 oz. yeast. Beat this sponge well, stretching 
and folding as much as possible, until it becomes quite elastic, then cover 
up with a thick layer of flour and allow to stand till it drops. This 
will occupy about forty to forty-five minutes. Dough is then made with 
28 lb. flour — half Hungarian, and half home-milled patents — 1 gal. new 
milk about 80° F., and 5 oz. salt. This dough will be about 76° or 78° F. 
when finished, and should be kept as near that temperature as possible 
while proving. It should be kneaded once, and ought to be ready for 
scaling in about an hour and three-quarters after making. The method 
of handling after the pieces are cut out is the same as that already 
described. In this case, however, owing to the dough being stiffer and 
colder, a longer time must be allowed for the rolls or loaves to prove. 
The same plan is invariably followed of proving all rolls and loaves upside 
down on cloths, without any dust; in the case of loaves the cloth is drawn 



Fig. 18.— Basket for Proving Long Loaves 

up between each pair, forming really a double cloth partition, so that they 
do not touch at all, somewhat as in fig. 17. When the loaves are made 
very long or in ring shape, they are then proved in cloth-lined baskets 
specially made for the purpose (figs. 18 and 19), so that when sufficiently 
proved they can be turned over on to the peel without being handled at 
all. The shape called Crescents, or Horse Shoes (see Plate, British Vienna 
Rolls, No. 3) is generally made from special dough containing a proportio^ 
of butter — part of the dough just described, with 1 oz. of sweet butter per 
pound of dough thoroughly incorporated in it. Much care has to be taken 

that the butter used in bread 
is perfectly sound and sweet. 
There being no pronounced 
flavours of other sorts to 
mask that of the butter, the 
slightest rancidity can be 
easily detected, and the use 
of butter in such circumstances, instead of being any improvement, is 
really offensive. After moulding, crescents are best proved straight, and 
twisted round into horse-shoe shape only when about to be placed in the 
oven, and this shape is much more satisfactory when baked on tins than 
if baked on the oven bottom. 

There is a variety of soft roll made from Vienna dough similar to 
that used for Crescents, only this dough is further enriched by the 
addition of 1 egg for each 4 lb. of dough used. The shape 
of these soft rolls is invariably round, with either a cut on 
the top or else a split in the centre by being pressed with the side of 

the hand. They are also proved on 
cloths upside down and baked on tins, 
but without steam, in the oven. 

Besides the methods and mixtures 
given above there are all manner of 
variations of these, not in essentials, 
but introduced to please the fancy of 
individuals. It is still possible, how- 
ever, to have very fine and satisfactory 
dough and yet to produce very poor Vienna bread. For some of the shapes 
a good deal of skill and practice are required to obtain good results. The 
rolls may be spoiled by either under or over proof, but probably the most 
critical stage of all is the baking. Ordinary shapes, such as round or oval, 
or long like batons, any baker can produce without special experience, and 
as these, when nicely glazed and baked, look quite as well as the more 
fancy sorts, while occupying a good deal less time, it is better, when com- 
petition is so keen, to keep to the plain forms. Those of them that require 
to be cut should be cut clean and moderately deep, and to that end an old 
razor blade fixed in a plain wood handle is a convenient tool to use for 
the purpose, or, failing that, a shoemaker's knife, which usually takes and 

Soft Rolls. 

Fig. 19.— Basket for Proving Ring Loaves 


keeps a very keen edge, will suit. It assists matters, especially when the 
rolls are soft, if, while the cutting is proceeding, a jug of warm water 
is placed near, and the knife or razor blade is wetted from time to time. 
This expedient prevents the dragging which sometimes disfigures soft 
rolls cut with a blunt knife, or even with a sharp one used dry. It is 
necessary, however, on occasions to make the more elaborate shapes, espe- 
cially if customers demand them, particularly the shapes known as Kaisers 
and Crescents. It is not easy to give instructions as to how these should 
be moulded, but as there are many who have no opportunity of seeing 
them made, and must practise with only such instructions as can be given 
in a book, the task must be attempted. 

For all sorts of rolls the usual method is to roll the pieces round first, 
and to dust them well to prevent sticking, but when they are cut out on 
a table dividing machine the preliminary rolling is not really to Mould 
necessary. After the pieces have proved a little they are ready Kaisers, 
for moulding. In moulding a Kaiser roll (see fig. 20) the first operation 
is to flatten out the piece of dough with the palm of the hand, or the 
beginner may use a rolling-pin for the purpose, although it is as well to 
learn to do without this. The piece of dough is then folded over (stage 
1) about one-third its diameter; the thumb of the left hand is placed on 
top of the dough at the doubled part, and the other corner folded over 
so as to enclose the point of the thumb nearly up to the first joint, and 
so that the thumb points towards the centre of the roll (stage 2). The 
thumb is retained in this position, while with the side of the right hand 
the piece of dough is pressed down. The roll is turned slightly towards 
the operator and another part of the dough folded over, the corner being 
drawn about half an inch over the centre, and the dough again pressed 
along the fold with the side of the right hand (stages 3, Number of Points 
4, 5). This operation is repeated until five folds are made. ^" Kaiser Roll. 
At the last one the thumb is withdrawn from the position made by the 
first fold, leaving a cavity there, into which the last corner of the dough 
is inserted, this corner being forced inwards, and in towards the centre 
by the thumb of the right hand (stage 6). In moulding this roll there 
will be, after each fold is made, a corner formed by the folded dough. 
This corner must in each case be brought over about half an inch past 
the centre of the roll, the purpose being to make the folds in the 
finished roll cross each other a little past the centre, and not merely 
radiate from the centre like the spokes of a wheel. The difficulty the 
beginner finds with this shape of roll is in getting a neat cause of 
finish, when the thumb is withdrawn and the last corner of ^^^ Finish, 
dough inserted in the cavity. The trouble arises usually from the first 
fold being made too large, or from the last piece being too large. This 
difficulty is readily overcome by careful practice. The ex- How Experts 
pert moulder does not fold over the pieces with the deliber- Mould, 
ation described above, but is able by a deft movement of the side of the 
right hand, which is only acquired with practice, to lift over a piece of 



1st stage 

2nd stage 

4th stage 

5th stage Gth and final 

Fig. 20.— Stages in Moulding a £aiser Roll 

the dough and fold it into its proper position, using one of the fingers of 
the left hand, the thumb of which is in a way imprisoned, to hold each 
piece as it is folded, until the next piece is placed in its position. The 
accompanying rough sketches will show the various stages of the roll 
formation as described. See also Plate, British Vienna Rolls, No. 6. 



When the rolls are wanted in the form of shells the moulding operation 
is much more simple. In this case the piece of dough is beat out quite 
thin, on one edge only, with the heel of the right hand (Ist To Mould 
stage). The thick piece of the dough is then rolled up in the Shells. 
usual way between the hand and the table, until the rolled part is about 
half an inch from the thinned extremity (3rd stage). With the palm of 
the hand it is pulled over so that the thinned part will lie flat on that 
rolled (4th stage), but is not pressed tightly on it to make it adhere too 
firmly; the purpose of this treatment is to allow the thin part to curl back 
slightly from the body of the roll during baking. The accompanying 

1st stage 

2nd stage 

3rd stage 

4th aud tinal stage 

Fig. 21. —Stages in Moulding a Shell Boll 

sketches (fig. 21) will show the progress of the moulding operation, while 
No. 7 on the coloured plate of British Vienna Rolls shows good samples 
of the finished rolls. After the roll is moulded it is placed. How to Prove 
closing downward, on a cloth-covered board to prove, then ^^^ Bake Shells, 
baked with closing upwards, so that the thin piece opens outwards and 
curls slightly as already described. This shape of roll has a nice appear- 
ance when baked. It can be handled very quickly after a little practice, 
and does not require very much experience to learn to mould. 

Probably the most popular shape of roll as made in this country is the 
Crescent, or, as it is usually called, the Horse Shoe (see Plate, British 
Vienna Rolls, No. 3). For this roll the piece of dough has ^ 

• JT o Crescents 

to be pinned out with a rolling-pin. To facilitate this opera- 
tion it is better to pin several pieces out about half the size they are 


wanted, then to allow them to rest for a little before going over them 
a second time to complete the size. By rolling out at two stages instead 
of attempting to do so at one the work is done easier and quicker, because 
How to the toughness inseparable from fermented dough is not so 

Prepare Dough, troublesome when this method is used. When the dough 
for the roll has been pinned out, until it is about eight or nine inches long, 
four inches wide at the centre, tapering to about two inches at the ends, 
and the whole about one-eighth of an inch thick, it is ready for moulding 
(see fig. 22). The piece of dough is rolled up for about half an inch at top, 
Size of Sheet and the thick part thus formed then fixed (2nd stage) by 
for Horse Shoe, pressing with the hand. The left hand is used to pull and 
stretch the small sheet of dough, while with the palm of the right hand 
the other end is little by little rolled up at the same time that it is also 
pressed out from the centre, so that the rolled piece becomes wider, while 
the sheet of dough forming it becomes narrower by stretching, the result 
Moulding of this double action being to cause graduated ridges to be 
Horse Shoes, formed all along the roll (3rd stage), while the latter is thin 
at the two ends and thicker in the middle. The roll as thus finished should 
be proved on cloth, with the little piece where it was finished downwards, 
but the roll placed quite straight on the cloth. When sufficiently proved 
Finish of the side next the cloth is turned upwards. The little tag 
Horse Shoe, showing the finish should be placed so that its point is towards 
the interior of the crescent (4th and 5th stages), and care should be taken 
that these tags all point the one way on the individual rolls, so that all are 
alike. The rolls are of course turned round into crescent shape when 
placed on the baking sheet on which they are to be baked. 

A shape called the Cannon (see fig. 23) is made much in the same way 
as the crescent; but instead of the dough, as in the latter case, being pinned 
Moulding o^t into a broad tapering sheet it is for the former shape made 
Cannons, into a long string-like piece about sixteen inches long, then 
flattened out to about an inch and a quarter wide, and an eighth of an inch 
thick (1st stage). In this case the rolling is not done with the palm of 
the hand, but from both ends of the ribbon of dough at once (2nd stage), 
the thumbs and fingers being used, and the dough pressed in the centre of 
the mass as it grows, while being rolled towards the middle of the ribbon. 
At the same time this ribbon is stretched as the operation proceeds, so 
that in the end the piece at the centre will be as thin as possible. This 
shape of roll may be baked with the two rolls straight and together 
(3rd stage), in which case the piece of dough between is snipped with a 
knife or scissors before baking, or one of the rolled pieces may be twisted 
round and placed so that it forms a right angle with the other (4th stage). 
The bottom part of the upright half is then pressed with the hand to fix 
it in this position. The twisting of the roll should not be done till it 
is about to be set in the oven. 

The illustrations of Vienna rolls given on the plates in this volume will 
indicate the shapes into which rolls may be made. Except those already 


1. Salzwecken (salt rolls). 

2. Mundsemmel (fancy or tasty roll). 

3. Salzstriezel (salt twist). 

4. 5. Mundbaunzerl (mouth roll). 

6, 8. Weisse Wecken (white rolls). 

7. Extrawecken (extra rolls). 

9, II. Mohnstriezel (poppy-seed twists). 

10. Extrabrot (extra bread). 




Vol. I. 




described few of these require any special skill in their manipulation. 
Reference has, however, been made to the general practice of allowing 
Purpose of these rolls to prove upside down on cloths without any dust 
Using Cloths, q^ ^^e latter. When the rolls are only small ones, the cloths, 
which should not be too coarse, are spread flat on the boards; when the 
rolls are large, the cloths, as already described, are drawn up so that there 
is a cloth partition between the pieces. By this arrangement the rolls can 
be proved in the open, without the aid of steam or other heating agent; 

2ud stage 

3rd and final stage 

Another Form 

Fig. 23.— Stages in Moulding a Cannon Roll 

the side next the cloth, if the rolls are only protected from draught, keeps 
soft and moist, and is therefore in the condition in which it will readily 
Must not be glaze when steamed in the oven. Rolls proving in this 

Wetted with Steam, -y^^y should not in any circumstances be placed in a 
prover containing naked steam, as the condensation of the steam will cause 
them to stick to the cloths. Care has also to be taken that rolls are not 
allowed to prove too much, or they fail to retain the neat shape given at 
moulding, do not open out as they should, and are in fact what bakers 
call blind. On the other hand, if not sufficiently proved they are small 
and pinched in appearance, close in texture, and inclined to be tough. 




After careful moulding and proving the next point of importance, and 
in fact the most important point of all, is concerned with the baking of the 
rolls, especially that part of the baking process during which qj^^jj, j^Q^g 
glazing is effected. It may be stated at once that the glaze 
on rolls is produced as soon as they are placed in the oven, or at least as 
soon as this can be effected under the conditions which obtain there. Those 
conditions are that the oven atmosphere should be saturated or super- 
saturated with steam, and that the bread to be glazed is completely enve- 
loped by this atmosphere. It may be explained, for the benefit of those not 
very familiar with scientific matters, that any atmosphere Water-saturated 
is capable of holding a large quantity of water vapour in Atmosphere, 
suspension without depositing it in the form of water, and that the quantity 
of water or water vapour thus held depends on the temperature of the 
atmosphere; the rule being, roughly, that an increase of temperature raises 
the point of saturation of the atmosphere, that is, the point at which it will 
hold no more without throwing it down as water. On the other hand, the 
reduction of temperature of an atmosphere already Effect of Temperature 
saturated causes condensation of some of the invisible °" Saturation Point, 
water it had contained. It is on the principles here stated that the glazing 
of rolls depends. As soon as the comparatively cold dough is set in the 
oven with its steam-saturated atmosphere, the air in proximity to the cold 
rolls is considerably cooled and deposits some of its moisture on them, 
really covering them with a film of water. The Condensation caused 
condition required for glazing seems to be that this ^V ^°^^ Dough, 
deposition of water must be continued for some little time after the rolls 
are placed in the oven, or at any rate that their skins are not allowed to 
become dry until the glazing process is actually completed. That it is 
completed shortly after the rolls are set can be seen if one or two rolls are 
taken from the oven as soon as they can be handled. Al- ^^ ^^^^ Bakine 
though these rolls will be quite white and soft, they are Stage Glazing 
properly glazed, only requiring to be thoroughly dried and '^ effected, 
coloured as the baking proceeds. What actually happens is, that the film 
of water deposited on the outside of the roll quickly boils this skin, and the 
gelatinized starch of the flour thus produced gives the glazed appearance. 

It has been already stated that if the rolls are allowed to acquire a dry 
skin while proving, they will not afterwards glaze properly whatever the 
quantity of steam in the oven. The same result follows if ^^ Glazing is 
they are allowed to stand in the oven for only a minute or Difficult in an 
so in a dry heat before steam is let in. It is this that ^'^'''^'y o^«"- 
makes glazing of rolls so difficult in an ordinary oven. Even if there is 
a moderate supply of steam, part of this escapes every time the oven 


door is opened, and this part is not merely a quantity taken out of the 

front near the door and leaving the remainder of the oven full from the 

crown to the sole, but its escape causes the whole of the steam, or, at 

least, the saturated atmosphere, to lift several inches from the bottom, 

and it therefore leaves the rolls for a little free from the moist atmosphere, 

and they are subjected to a dry heat which causes the quick formation 

of crust. On this account in an ordinary oven with a swing door it is 

hardly possible to obtain a sufficient glaze on rolls with such steam - 

generating apparatus as a pot of boiling water, or steam sets, or even 

one of the patent generators which produce steam from cold water let 

into a hot chamber. None of these apparatus produces steam quick 

Boiling Water enough to compensate for the very large loss each time 

Supplies in- the door is opened; but in an ordinary oven it is quite 

sufficient Steam. ii n ti i-pn n, ■, 

easy to glaze rolls and bread it the source of steam supply 

is a pressure boiler. It has been suggested, not very wisely, that the 

secret of the success of pressure steam is in its temperature, which, on 

account of the pressure in the boiler, is hotter than steam at ordinary 

atmospheric pressure. Thus, while the latter is about 212° F., steam at, say, 

80 lb. pressure is about 310° F. But the steam is only at this temperature 

Heat of Steam while it is under pressure, that is, while it is still in the 

under Pressure, boiler, or in the pipes directly connected with it, but as soon 

as the pressure is relieved, as soon as the steam emerges from the pipes, 

it not only loses its comparatively high temperature but becomes colder 

than ordinary steam at atmospheric pressure. The explanation of this fact 

is, that as soon as steam under pressure leaves the pipe it expands suddenly 

and performs work, or uses its energy in pushing back the aii-, and as the 

energy in any given amount of steam is quite definite in quantity, therefore 

what it uses as energy to perform work it loses as energy manifested as 

Heat of Ordinary heat, and is therefore colder. In an oven, steam from 

and Pressure Steam a boiler is not under pressure; before it can be used 

w en e ease . ^^ glaze bread it has already left the pipes connected 

with the boiler, and cooled somewhat in the manner just described, although 

the high temperature of the oven atmosphere prevents the same degree 

of cooling as in the open air. Since it is undoubtedly true that bread 

cannot be glazed in an oven with an ordinary door by a small amount 

of steam, cannot in fact be glazed unless the oven has a direct supply from 

a pressure boiler, it is interesting to enquire as to the conditions which 

obtain under such circumstances. As already mentioned the one essential 

thing is that the oven atmosphere be thoroughly saturated with water 

vapour, so that the least local reduction of temperature will cause that 

vapour to change into water and deposit on the nearest cold surface. But 

in an oven with a swing door which opens down to the oven bottom, it is 

Condition of necessary to open this door to admit each peelful of rolls. 

Glazing m Oven, ^^(j although the opening may only be for a few seconds, 

the aperture is so large that a great quantity of the contained steam 

escapes and the whole saturated atmosphere of the oven may rise a few 


1, 3, 4, 5. Butterschnitten (butter slices). 

2, 18, 20. Pariserkipfel (Parisian crescents). 

6, 7, 8, 30. Miirbe Laibchen (soft loaves or crisp loaves). 

9. Pragerspitz (Prague spike). 

10. Miirbes Weckerl (soft roll). 

11. Mohnstangerl (poppy-seed stick). 

12. 13. Gedrehte Kipfel (twisted crescents). 

14, 17, 26, 27. Miirbe Kipfeln (soft crescents or crisp crescents). 

15, 16. Giraffeln. 

19. Miirber Wecken (soft roll). 

21, 25. Miirbe Stangerln (soft sticks). 

22, 24. Baunzerl. 

23, Markus (mark). 

28; 32. Radetzky Kipfeln (Radetzky crescents). 
29, 31. Murbus Striezel (Murbus twists). 



inches from the oven bottom, this space being filled by comparatively dry 
air from outside, and if the steam-laden atmosphere is only half an inch 
above the surface of the rolls it is quite ineffective for glazing. The distance 
into the oven at which this rise of the atmosphere will take place depends 
on the time the door is allowed to stand open, and on the rate at which 
fresh steam is entering the oven from the boiler. It is evident that if the 
steam can be made to enter as quickly, or nearly as vvhy Pressure 
quickly, as it leaves by the open door, then the atmos- Steam Glazes Bread, 
phere of steam will hardly lift from the oven bottom at all. This is really 
the condition which obtains when steam is injected into the oven at about 
80 lb. pressure. Such a large quantity of water as steam enters in such 
a very short time that the saturated atmosphere of the oven is kept close 
down to the oven bottom, and therefore completely envelops the rolls, even 
when the swing door has to be frequently opened and shut; hence the 
glazing effects. 

When nothing but an ordinary oven is available and Vienna bread 
requires to be baked in it, there is a certain method of working which 
must be followed to secure the desired effect. A boiler of „ * r^i 

rlow to Glaze 

at least 40 gal. capacity should be available, and capable of in an Ordinary 
bearing in normal circumstances a pressure of 100 lb. If a ^^"' 
very large boiler is available, it is not necessary to have steam at such 
a high pressure. A word may also be said here about the manner 6f 
placing the steam ingress pipe in an oven of this type. The usual thing 
is to place it along one side and running from front to back pogj^joj, ^f 
of the oven, but greater economy is obtained by having two Steam Pipes 
ingress pipes controlled by a single tap and placed near the *" ^^"' 
back of the oven, running for some distance towards the door along 
both sides. The pipes should be perforated on top — next the crown 
of the oven — as they are a constant source of trouble by dripping water 
if perforated underneath. Before the setting of bread is started, care 
should be taken that the boiler is nearly full. Water in the pipes 
connecting the boiler with the oven should be drawn off by the tap 
usually provided for the purpose. When everything is ready, the rolls 
or loaves are placed on a broad peel, which should be about as large 
as the oven door will admit, and with the side of the rolls uppermost 
that was previously next the cloth on the proving board. The tap 
admitting steam to the oven is then turned on about one-third its total 
length until the oven is completely filled with steam. As soon as this 
is done the man who is handing the rolls on to the peel quickly opens 
the door, while the setter places his peelful of rolls in the oven and with- 
draws the peel smartly, when the oven door is at once closed. This 
operation is repeated as each peelful of rolls is set. In an oven with 
an ordinary movable light it is impossible to push the light in and 
out each time the door is opened and shut, and unless the oven is one 
with a patent light, it becomes necessary to set the rolls in their places 
virtually in the dark. This is awkward at first, and usually causes 


a waste of oven space, but after a little practice greater accuracy is 
obtained without much trouble. As soon as the oven is filled with 
rolls, steam is turned on full, until it begins to come out at the bottom 
of the oven door, when it is reduced again. 

After the rolls have been steamed in this way for about three minutes, 
the steam is turned off, as there should then be quite sufficient from the 
baking bread to keep the oven atmosphere completely saturated. If the 
bread is in the form of rolls, about ten minutes will be sufficient time to 
allow them to bake in the steam atmosphere. At the end of tha,t time 
the steam damper is drawn to allow all the steam to escape, and the baking 
of the rolls is completed in a dry heat. About eight minutes longer, or 
eighteen minutes in all, will be sufficient time for 3-oz. rolls, if the initial 
Time Rolls ^^^^ of the oven was about 480° F. If the steam is not allowed 
are Baked, to escape as described, the rolls, even if they seem hard and well 
baked when they come from the oven, will quickly soften and become quite 
tough, and it is to prevent this fault that steam is allowed to escape and 
baking finished in a dry heat. When the loaves are long ones, or at least 
are large, and when only one oven fitted with steam is available, it is a 
common practice to steam, and therefore glaze, those loaves in one oven, 

Why Rolls ^^^ ^^ '^^^^ ^^ ^^^^y ^^^ ^® handled to remove them to 
become Soft another oven in which the heat is dry. In such circum- 
an oug . stances the loaves take on a very dark colour in the second 
oven if its temperature is high. This expedient very greatly increases the 
baking capacity of the steam oven, as otherwise it would be occupied for 
a long time with each batch of large bread. 

The method of glazing bread described above may be followed with a 
side-flue oven if the furnace doors are moderately tight, but if this is 
the only type of oven available an arrangement should be provided, such 
as a large fire-block, to cover the end of the furnace as it enters the oven. 
This plan of baking in steam may be adopted successfully with ovens of 
Scotch type and with steam -pipe ovens. On account, however, of the 
large quantity of heat stored in the material of the Scotch oven, it has 
a larger baking capacity when steam is used than the steam-pipe sort. 
The latter cools very quickly when such an excessive quantity of naked 
D -olate steam is injected into it. Excellent results can be obtained 

Oven for Vienna in a draw-plate oven with an even smaller quantity of 
^^^ ' steam than in the peel sort, but even in a draw-plate it is 

not easy to glaze Vienna rolls by the aid of the small apparatus with 
which they are sometimes fitted which produces steam from cold water. 
"When a draw-plate is in use, the procedure is to fill the plate with the 
rolls or loaves, keeping the oven door close down meanwhile; then, while 
the plate is being filled, the tap controlling the steam from the boiler is 
turned on slightly, so that the oven will be quite filled with steam by 
Washing the time the rolls are all in position. If the rolls have become 
with Water, in the least dry or skinned, they may be lightly brushed 
or sprayed with water before the plate is run into the oven. When 



everything is ready the steam is turned on about half full and the door 
lifted just sufficient to clear the tops of the rolls; then the plate is 
quickly pushed in and the door clamped down tight, at the same time 
that the steam is turned on full for about three minutes. At the end 
of that period it is turned off, and the baking continued, in the steam 
already in the oven and that produced by the bread itself, for ten 
minutes, after which the whole of the steam is allowed to escape, and 
the baking for the last eight minutes or so finished in a dry heat. 
This procedure is in all respects nearly identical with that described for 
adoption with peel ovens, but the draw-plate gives the great advantage 
of keeping the oven quite closed till the rolls are all in position, then 





Fig. 24.— Vienna Oven 

Vienna Oven. 

immersing the lot at once into a steam-saturated atmosphere. There is 
much less trouble, a smaller quantity of steam suffices, and the glaze is 
more pronounced than in a peel oven. Still, there is a good deal more 
steam needed in any of the usual bread types than in a proper Vienna 
oven (fig. 24). The essential thing about the latter is that it 
retains any steam passed into it even if the oven door is open. 
This advantage is obtained by having the oven bottom and top sloping up- 
wards from the door, and by having the latter sliding up and down verti- 
cally. By this arrangement the oven chamber is wholly at a level higher 
than the bottom of the oven door when the latter is open. When the 
atmosphere of this oven is saturated with steam it remains so, and in the 
first instance only a very small quantity of water or steam is required 
to efifect this purpose, a few cupfuls of water being, in fact, sufficient if 
the oven itself is nearly steam-tight. With an oven of this type the use 
of a small boiler is an advantage, but no great quantity of steam is 


needed for any one batch, so that the boiler with very little attention is 
capable of supplying steam for batch after batch. The small quantity 
of steam needed, besides making for economy on its own account, has 
the same effect in another direction, because it does not cool the oven 
Quantity ^^^'^'Ij ^o much as does the large quantity used in an ordinary 
of Steam oven. With an oven of this kind the same precautions have 
to be taken as when other ovens are used with steam during 
baking. The bread must be very thoroughly dried; otherwise the crust 
will become soft after it has been taken from the oven a few minutes. 
In the case of ovens that are not steam-tight there may be no necessity 
to draw off the steam from the rolls to finish in a dry heat; but in ovens 
quite tight this is expedient. Where a large quantity of long loaves are 
required it is necessary to keep them in the Vienna oven only till they 
are glazed and set, and the baking may then be finished in an ordinary 
oven with a dry heat. It is, of course, only possible to build an oven 
with a sloping bottom for Vienna bread when there is a reasonable 
prospect that there will be sufficient trade to keep it going for that 
kind of bread alone, as the sloping bottom makes it unsuitable for bread 
of the ordinary sorts. (A full description of various designs of this and 
other types of ovens will be given in a later chapter, with drawings.) 

There are thousands of bakeries where it is impossible, from the want 
of steam, or facilities for producing it, to make Vienna rolls or bread by 
any of the methods described, and yet, to give variety to the window 
display, or to supply bread for a special occasion or for a special customer, 
most bakers are anxious to be able to make rolls that have at least a 
presentable likeness to the real article. To this end more or less simple 
expedients have to be resorted to. The very simplest, and not the least 
Egg Glaze effective, is to carefully wash over the rolls or bread after they 
for Rolls. are properly proved with ordinary egg wash. The rolls are 
moulded as neatly as possible in the manner described, and proved on cloths; 
then w^hen ready they are turned over and placed evenly on tins, after 
which they are washed and baked in a moderately warm oven in the usual 
way. The wash should not be wholly egg, but may consist of two parts 
egg to one part milk. It is necessary to break the grain of the yolk 
Preparing thoroughly and destroy by whisking the fibrous nature of the 
Egg Wash, white of the egg before mixing with milk. A soft brush 
should be used for washing over the rolls; otherwise they wnll be streaky 
and look far from enticing. Rolls or loaves that are washed in this way 
are best baked on tins, for, if baked on the oven bottom, the under part 
appears dry and coarse, while the upper part is bright and glossy. When 
Why Baked baked on tins the rolls flatten out slightly on bottom. If this 
on Tins. jg ^ fault it can be got over to some extent by heating the tins 
highly before placing the rolls on them, then setting them in the oven 
quickly. When this is to be done it is better to lay the rolls first on 
a board to wash them, and place them on the hot tins afterwards; 
this prevents the tins from cooling too much before they are again in the 


1. Brioche. 

2, 8. Gallatschen. 

3. Gedrehte Brioche Stangel (twisted Brioche stick). 

4, 5, 6. Theestangel (tea sticks). 

7, 9, 19, 21. Dessertweckerl (dessert rolls). 

13, 16. Briochen Formstangel. 

10, II, 14, 15. Dessertlaiberl (small dessert loaves). 

12, 17. Karlsbader Brezel (Karlsbad crackers). 

18, 22, 25, 27. Briochekipfel (Brioche crescents). 

20. Briochestriezel (Brioche twist). 

23, 26. SioWe sometimes called Weihnachtstolle (Christmas 

currant bread). 

24, 28. Brioche Markus (Brioche Mark). 




oven. Rolls that have been glazed with egg have an appearance not unlike 
that obtained by steam, but the resemblance ends there. The crust is soft 
and has not the same crispness nor the sweetness of rolls character of 
baked in steam. Egg wash may also be used for large Egg-glazed Rolls, 
loaves, but those are best baked on the oven bottom. After proving 
thoroughly on cloths the loaves are turned over and carefully glazed 
with a soft brush, and are cut only after they are placed on the peel or 
on the draw-plate. 

Instead of using egg wash, which is relatively expensive, a cheaper 
wash may be manufactured from either wheaten or corn flour, preferably 
the latter, as it is easier to prepare free from lumps. This cheap Wash 
wash is identical with that described for use on plain crusty ^°'^ Bread, 
bread, only made a stronger jelly. For this purpose 1| oz. of wheaten 
flour or 1| oz. of corn flour to 1 pt. of water is used. The most satisfactory 
way of preparing this is to mix the whole of the flour and water together 
into a thin milky fluid, then boil, stirring during the process, in a saucepan 
of water until the paste becomes brownish in colour and thickens. This is 
allowed to cool, then it is well stirred until it becomes a thick Preparing 
paste and its jelly-like nature destroyed. Owing to its thick- Starch Wash, 
ness this paste is not very suitable for use on small rolls, as they so readily 
move about under the brush, and are in consequence very liable to be 
streaky, but it suits very well indeed for larger loaves. These are man- 
ipulated and proved in the usual way, but are given a smooth coat of 
the prepared paste before being placed on the peel and before cutting. 
This application is not sufficient, however, to effect the why Rolls 
necessary glaze. In the same way as described for become streaky, 
rye bread the loaves must be drawn from the oven after they are quite 
set, but before baking is completed, and washed over a second time, then 
returned to the oven. If the latter is moderately warm this second applica- 
tion is generally sufficient to produce the proper glaze, but if not it is only 
necessary to wash over with a little clean water when baking is quite 
completed to secure that end. Bread glazed with gelatinized starch paste 
in this way may be made to appear quite like that glazed with steam; 
indeed, glazing is effected in both cases in much the starch Glaze com- 
same way. When bread is steamed the outer skin of pared with Steam, 
the dough is scalded and its starch gelatinized; in the other way just 
described the gelatinized skin is, as it were, prepared separately and 
smeared on with a brush. The paste -glazed rolls have neither the 
crispness nor the sweetness of the steamed. The former incline to be 
harder and drier, owing, no doubt, to the heat of the oven being dry during 
the whole time of baking. When, however, Vienna bread is made only 
for show purposes or for special orders, when no proper facilities are avail- 
able, glazing in this way with paste is as good an expedient as any. 

There is another method of preparing small quantities of Vienna rolls 
by actual steaming and without any special wash. Glazing in this case 
is effected with steam. If some rolls, moulded and proved as already 

Vol. I. 27 


described, are placed on an ordinary flat baking sheet, are well splashed 
with water, and are then baked in a hot oven under inverted bread tins, 
Steaming these rolls will take on the characteristic glaze of Vienna 

under Covers, bread. As soon as the glaze is produced, which will be when 
the rolls are in the oven about ten minutes, the baking may be completed 
without the covers. The rolls will have all the appearance and taste of 
proper Vienna rolls, except that they will be somewhat flat and have sharp 
edges at the bottom, with a tendency there to hardness. Matters are im- 
proved by heating the baking sheet well before placing the rolls on it, and 
using hot water for splashing. This expedient is, of course, only suitable 
when a very few rolls have to be made. For larger quantities special tins 
with lids which are more or less steam-tight may be used. Those generally 
■Glazing in use for baking cream buns are very suitable, or those now 
in Boxes. gQ^^j £qj. baking exhibition crusty bread; but whatever sort of 
tin is in use it is better that the deep part should form the lid, so that 
laefore the steam can escape it must completely fill the tin and therefore 
envelop the rolls. In the case of the cream bun and the other tins already 
alluded to, this condition is best obtained by using the lid of the tin as the 
bottom on which to place the rolls, and the body of the tin as the lid. By 
•doing this, steam cannot escape until it has reached the bottom. The success 
of this method of baking depends on the amount of water used. There 
must be enough in the tin to quite fill it with steam before the heat causes 
the rolls to skin. On the other hand, if too much water is splashed into 
How to Prepare ^^® *^^ ^^^ effect is to make the rolls hard and their skins 
Rolls for tough. If the tins are reasonably tight it is sufficient 

team oxes. merely to wash over the rolls with water, after placing 
them on the tin, which has previously been heated highly. A very little 
water sprinkled over before the cover is placed on will produce all the 
glaze necessary. As in the other cases it is best to complete the baking 
of the rolls in a dry heat, that is, without the covers. Of all the expedients 
for imitating Vienna rolls, the best results can be obtained by this method; 
and with, two or three tins, used only for baking up to the glazing stage, 
sufficient rolls can be made for an ordinary shop trade. 



Bread on the Continent is of endless variety, as far as its composition 
and outward form are concerned; but fancy bread, which figures largely on 
Fashion in ^^^ breakfast tables of the well-to-do classes in Austria-Hun- 
Continental gary, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Holland, is 
^^^ ' to a great extent modelled on the Vienna lines. The capital of 

Austria sets the fashion as completely in rolls and fancy bread as Paris 


forty years ago dictated what bonnets ladies should wear. A Budapest 
miller once remarked to the writer, " We in Budapest know how to 
make flour, but if you want to eat the perfect bread you must go to 
Vienna." Without unreservedly endorsing this judgment, it is undoubtedly 
true that Vienna bakers have brought the art of making light rolls 
almost to perfection. All over the Continent the shapes of Perfection of 
rolls peculiar to Vienna are copied, with such modifications Vienna Bread, 
as local taste demands. A Continental wayfarer may look into bakers' 
windows in the fashionable quarters of Berlin, Dresden, Munich, Cologne, 
Brussels, and Paris, and he will see the same kinds of fancy bread as he 
admired in Vienna. 

The illustrations to this article, so far as they are concerned with rolls 
and fancy bread made in Vienna, are reproduced from photographs specially 
taken in that city. This bread was all prepared by Herr The Emperor- 
Josef M. Breunig, of Vienna, who holds by warrant the King's Baker, 
appointment of Baker to the Emperor-King, as his Majesty Francis Joseph 
is officially styled. 

Among the fancy rolls of Vienna none has acquired wider vogue on 
the Continent than the Semmel, a dainty little roll, round in shape, and 
always so moulded that the top has a sort of distant likeness . 
to a sea anemone closed, with wavy lines radiating from the 
centre, which in the anemone would be the closed mouth. This pretty little 
roll is also known in Vienna as a KaisersertiTnel (see Plate, Vienna Fancy 
Bread — IV, Nos. 8, 9, 14, 16), or a Mundsemmel (see Plate, Vienna 
Fancy Bread — I, No. 2). The former description doubtless implies a roll 
fit for an emperor's table, whilst the latter variety of Semmel is The Mund- 
usually small enough for one mouthful. Mund, be it noted, is semmel. 
German for viouth. The Vienna Semmel is supposed to be prepared from 
Hungarian top patents, but diflferent qualities of these rolls are made in 
Vienna as elsewhere. A Viennese recipe for making Semmeln recommends 
the addition to 100 kilos of flour of 3 kilos of brewers' yeast (roughly 6f lb. 
of yeast to 2 cwt. of flour). This mass is doughed by means Recipe for 
of 40 to 50 litres (4J litres go to the gallon) of water and Semmel Dough, 
milk in equal proportions, and the dough is kneaded in the usual way, care 
however being taken to add sufficient flour to make a moderately stiff 

Vienna bakers attach a good deal of importance to the temperature of 
the bakehouse; for instance, rolls on leaving the moulding board are 
supposed to be proved for a little while in a temperature Proving Tempera- 
of about 85° to 95° F. before being put in the oven. ^^^^ fo"" Ro"s- 
They are proved on long boards on fine cloths placed on hanging racks 
above the bakers' heads. The poorer the flour (by which presumably lack 
of strength is meant) the higher should be the temperature of the proving 
room. When flour of lower quality is used the dough influence of Quality 
should be stiffer. Not infrequently the so-called Vienna °^ Flour on Rolls. 
yeast is used in place of brewers' yeast. This is a ferment prepared 


from hops. To 100 kilos (2 cwt.) of high-class flour 12 litres (roughly 

2 gal. 5^ pt.) of this ferment may be added; for poorer flours 2 gal. would 

be ample. This ferment, moreover, should be diluted with 

ir icnri3. Yc£LSt 

25 to 30 litres (about 5^ to 6f gal.) of warm water about 
100° F. The sponge may then be allowed to rise and drop. When the 
sponge has dropped, 25 to 30 litres more of w^arm water may be added, and 
Ferment with sufficient flour to form a firm dough which will not work 
Vienna Yeast, ^qq quickly. Many Viennese bakers prefer this process as 
giving a more stable dough, a point to which they attach some importance. 
In preparing the sponge they are careful to heap up the flour at one end 
of the trough, forming at the same time a hollow in the middle, into which 
the liquid ferment is poured, till the latter has been thoroughly absorbed 
by the flour, an operation which is hastened by pushing down the flour 
in little masses into the cavity. As soon as the water has been thor- 
Method of Mixing ^^g^^y absorbed by the flour the kneading can begin; 
and Kneading this Operation should be taken in hand gently at first, 

°"^ ■ the pressure being increased towards the end. When 

the dough has been worked stiff the warm water can be gradually 
added. Working in the water in this way makes the dough very 

In South Germany bakers who make rolls, such as the popular Wecken, 
of which several illustrations are here given, usually begin making up the 
South German sponge about noon. This is made slack, with flour, barm. 
Methods. ^^^ water, and is allowed to ferment in a rather high tem- 

perature for six to nine hours, when more flour is added. In about an 
hour the kneading is begun, and two hours afterwards the rolls are 
moulded and ready for the oven. As a rule, with 100 kilos (2 cwt.) 
of flour, 60 litres (between 13 and 14 gal.) of water and "25 kilo 
(rather over ^ lb.) of yeast are used. The same kind of roll is some- 
. times made with milk, when the same process is followed, 

except that milk takes the place, in about the proportion 
of one-half, of water. Not infrequently butter is used as well as milk, 
the usual proportion being 1 kilo (2-2 lb.) of butter to 18 litres of milk. 

A characteristic Vienna roll is the Wecken, of which various kinds are 
shown on the plates of Vienna Fancy Bread, I-IV. The name has many 
The Wecken variations, being also written and pronounced in different 
,^°^^- localities, Weckel, Weckle, Weckerl (as in Vienna), Weckchen, 

and Week. The Wecken in its original shape is a small elongated roll 
with rather sharp points — in fact, a sort of miniature Vienna roll, as made 
in London. In Vienna, and over Austria generally, the Wecken is usually 
a plain-shaped roll, without lines or indents. Sometimes there is a strong 
line of demarcation down the centre, as in the Salzwecken (see Plate IV, 
No. 3). We have seen in Germany neatly moulded double Wecken, form- 
German ing two perfect little rolls joined in their whole length. 
Wecken Roll. Sometimes the Wecken is indented at the top with a Maltese 
cross. Like other Continental fancy bread, the Wecken is made either with 


t. Kaiserweckerl (Kaiser roll). 

2. Barches (twist). 

3. Salzweckerl (salt roll). 

4. 6. Kaiserlaibchen (Kaiser loaves). 

5. Mohnkipfel (poppy-seed crescent). 

7, 10. Franzoserln (small French rolls). 

8, 9, 14, 16. Kaisersemmel (Kaiser rolls). 
II, 12. Erdapfel Wecken (potato rolls). 
13, 17. Salzstangeln (salt sticks). 

15, 19. Franzosische Wecken (French batons or rolls). 
18, 20. Wasserkipfel (water crescents). 

21, 23. Patentwecken (patent rolls). 

22. Kaiserwecken (Kaiser rolls). 




or without milk. The Wasserwecken is a plain roll made from an ordinary- 
dough, whilst the Milchweckchen (Plate V, No. 1) is water Wecken 
prepared with milk. Again, an Eierweckel has a golden ^"^ ^^^^ Wecken. 
tinge from the use of eggs, and soda is used in making up a Laugenweckle. 

Another fav^ourite shape of breakfast roll is the Laibel, known in Vienna 
as Laiberl (see Plate, Vienna Fancy Bread — III, Nos. 10, 11, 14, 15). 
This is a small round roll, frequently quite plain, but sometimes with a 
deep cut or crease through the centre. It is also known as 
a Mundlaibel (Plate I, No. 4-5). In Munich a similar kind 
of roll, but of oblong shape, with a very round face, and indented with a 
Maltese cross, is known as a Viezerl. 

Crescents (see Plates, Vienna Fancy Bread, II-IV) and Horse Shoes are 
in great request all the Continent over, and are made up with and without 
milk. In Brussels crescents are made up with a lot of butter, and are 
not at all unpalatable, though we imagine their constant consumption 
would require a sound liver. The crescent is known to the bakers of 
Austria and Germany as a Kipferl or Kipfel. It is made up 
in any number of ways. Twisted, it is known in Vienna as a 
gedrektes Kipfel (Plate II, Nos. 12 and 13). When the horns of the crescent 
are wide apart it is termed a Pariser Kipfel (Plate II, Nos. 2, 18, 20), 
from its resemblance to the croissant of Paris. When the points almost 
meet the name changes to Damenkipfel, or ladies' crescent. We are now 
using the terms current in Viennese bakeries. The Hornchen, which has 
much resemblance to a horse shoe, is found all over the Continent. The 
Plunderhornchen and Nusshornchen are names used by the leading bakers 
of Dresden, and typical specimens of the Hornchen are largely Dresden 
displayed in bakers' windows in Germany and Austria. In the Hornchen. 
capital of the latter country, however, the Hornchen is often known by 
the name of Kipfel. 

All these fancy rolls may be sprinkled on the top with aniseed or 
any other kind of seed. Hence we get KUmTnelbrot, KumTnelwecken, 
and so forth. Both in Germany and in Austria a piece of 
fancy bread which is in considerable request is the Bretzel, 
or Pretzel — the t is sometimes omitted. To form a Bretzel the baker 
takes a string of dough and twists the ends round till they cross one 
another, when they are twined together and then pulled apart, each of 
the two ends being drawn to opposite sides of the circumference of the 
circle which has thus been formed. The Viennese specimens we 
illustrate are good examples of the Bretzel (see Plate, Vienna 
Fancy Bread— III, Nos. 12, 17). The Dresden Plunderbretzel is also 
well moulded. It is worth noting that the ends of a Bretzel are generally 
moulded into snakes' heads. The figure of a curled -up snake is a mystic 
emblem, believed to signify immortality — "that which has no beginning 
or end" — and is said to be thousands of years old. It is not to be supposed 
that the consumers to-day of Bretzeln are mystics in any shape or form. 
These small goods are almost invariably highly glazed, and are usually well 


flavoured with salt. They are said to be in great favour with purveyors 
of malt and other liquors, who judiciously strew them about the counter as 
Salt Flavour thirst-awakeners. Not that the Bretzel is peculiar in being 
of Rolls. seasoned with salt. In many districts of Austria and Germany 

salt is highly relished as a bread condiment; hence the SalzwecJcen (Plate I, 
No. 1, and Plate IV, No. 3) and Salzstange (Plate IV, Nos. 13, 17), or Stan- 
gerl, which are in such wide request. The latter is a roll shaped like a 
slender rod. 

To describe fully all varieties of Continental fancy bread would take 
more space than can here be spared, but we may call attention to the 
partiality of the Viennese for all kinds of twists. Not only the Kipfel, 
but Wecken, Stangel, and many other sorts of fancy bread are moi-e or 
less elaborately twisted. Good examples are the Striezel and Markus. 
The Briochestriezel is a very elaborate piece of work, as may be seen from 
our illustrations; it is rather cake than bread. See the plates of Vienna 
Fancy Bread. 



It would be a great mistake to suppose that the people on the Continent 
consume only the dainty rolls wdiich are served to tourists at hotels with 
the morning cup of coffee. It is true that Vienna rolls and small goods 
have made the tour of Europe. They have made their way to Belgrade, 
Sofia, and Constantinople, and in the better found hotels of those capitals 
they may be enjoyed in perfection. The masses, however, neither in 
Continental Eastern nor Western Europe, live upon rolls and buns. Far 
Common from it. This is not a political article, but truth compels 

Bread. ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ British working man is better off' as regards 

his daily bread than nine-tenths of his brother workmen on the Continent. 
This is true both of quality and of price. The best value we have seen in 
bread on the Continent, speaking, that is to say, of household bread, 
w^as in Holland and Belgium. We believe that to-day the price of bread 
in Holland is about the same as in Britain. At any rate a careful com- 
parison of very recent prices has failed to show any essential difference. 
In Belgium bread is tolerably cheap. An import duty, nearly equal to 
2s. per sack of 280 lb., is levied on foreign flour, but wheat is free, and 
the competition of the Belgian millers is severe enough to keep prices at 
a moderate level. The import duty on foreign flour was imposed in 1895 
to meet the bounty-fed competition of French flour. In those days the 
B leian Millers Belgian miller was crying out that he was being ruined 
and French through the French system of granting a drawback to ex- 

ounties. porters of flour. This drawback was regarded in Belgium 

as a virtual bounty, and as the drawback system was then administered 


1, 3. Bosniaken (Bosnian loaves). 

2, 8. Grahambrot (Graham bread). 

4, 6. Geschnittene Schusterlaibchen (cut shoemaker's rolls). 

5. Molkinbrot (whey bread). 

7, 9. Schwarzbrot (black bread). 

10, 12. Glatte Schusterlaibchen (smooth shoemaker's rolls). 

11, 13. Croutonbrot (crust bread). 



in France, we believe this charge was not unfounded. But the duty of 

2 francs per quintal (roughly 2 cwt.) imposed in 1895, had the effect of 

reducing an average import of 630,000 sacks (taking 1889-95) to a yearly 

average of 120,000 sacks (1896-1902). 

That Belgian bread is, however, sensibly lower in price than French 

is made clear by one curious fact. Along the Franco-Belgian frontier 

have spruns: up many considerable bread factories, but all 

. . . Smuggling 

are located on Belgian soil. It so happens that in France Bread on 

dwellers on the frontier are allowed, on crossing the frontier, Belgian 
to bring back duty - free a certain amount of bread or 
flour. This concession, illogical, it must be admitted, in a protectionist 
country, has been made in the interest of the large working-class popu- 
lation who live sufficiently near the Belgian frontier to be constantly 
crossing it in search of work. That the boon thus accorded is very real 
is proved by the large trade done in France by these Belgian frontier 
bakeries; in fact, for years past the French government has been besought 
by millers and bakers alike to put an end to what they describe as " the 
scandal" of this frontier traffic. Oddly enough, the same indulgence 
has been extended to its frontier subjects by the ultra-protective govern- 
ment of Germany. The result has been just the same as in France. The 
Imperial German government has been petitioned by the Association of 
German Millers to stop or restrict the free importation of bread and 
flour across the frontier, but has not seen its way to interfere. 

Belgian Bread 

Returning to Belgium, we find excellent household bread. The loaves 
have a great similarity to bread of the same class consumed in the north 
of France. We never remember having eaten more palatable Belgian 
bread than in some parts of Belgium, which is a great bread- Bread, 
eating country. Though its production of wheat is insignificant (between 
1,500,000 and 2,000,000 qr. per annum), it is a free importer of Danubian 
and La Plata wheats, as also of Anierican, when the latter are in the 
market. The shapes of bread favoured by Belgian bakers are mostly 
elongated; long rolls with diagonal cuts on the top (see Belgian Roll, Plate 
Scotch and Fancy Bread) are much in evidence. Belgian bread is made 
on the same system generally as English, compressed yeast being almost 
universally used. In the mining districts of Belgium the quality of common 
bread is very fine. Miners are everywhere remarkable for Bei„ja_ 
their insistence on the best bread. In their standard of good- Miners and 
ness is almost invariably included a very white loaf; that is °° ^'■^^'^• 
to say, they make a great point of colour. But they are not content with 
mere whiteness. In the mining districts of Belgium much the same kind 
of bread is in demand, so far as colour and strength are concerned, as in 
the Rhondda valley, where the miners, it is said, will have, and are ready 
to pay for, bread a good deal above the average. At St. fitienne, a great 


French mining centre, there is the same demand for fine, white bread, 
though French millers have not the same choice of strong wheat as their 
Belgian brothers. 

French Bread 

France grows practically all the wheat it consumes — about 43,000,000 
qr.— a duty of 12s. 2d. per qr. of 480 lb. excluding all but 1,500,000 
qr. of imported wheat. French wheat is not unlike British in many 
respects, but is certainly not remarkable for strength. After a wet harvest 
the flatness of loaves throughout the country is very noticeable'. For 
all that it is remarkable what good bread is made in France 
under normally favourable conditions. Such grand domes 
as are quite usual on English household bread are not to be found in 
France, but notwithstanding the absence of strong wheat some well- 
piled loaves are to be seen in Paris and other great cities. Household 
bread is known in France both as pain de Tnenage and pain ordinaire. 
(See Plate, French and Dutch Bread.) The shapes of loaves vary a 
good deal in different parts of France, but in Paris long rolls, more or 
Shapes of l^ss cut on the top, are much in evidence. Another shape 

French Bread, ig a loaf somewhat like a sole, rather flat, and generally 
marked with diagonal cuts. In country districts we have seen large 
round loaves, close in texture and not over-appetizing in appearance. 
Though distinctly stodgy, this bread had the merit of cheapness, the 
price being below that of the ordinary bread to be bought in this 
country. But putting aside farmhouse bread and loaves from the village 
bakehouse, bread in France has been kept in price at a distinctly high 
level during the past twenty years. In the well-to-do quarters of Paris 
the price of bread has in recent years often reached 8d. the quartern. 
Of course this is top price bread, but the official returns of the mean 
price of first-quality bread for all France from 1882 to 1901 show that the 
average of only one year (1900) fell below 30 c. the kilo, which is nearly 
6d. the quartern. In 1900 the average dropped to 29 c, or about 5hd. 
Prices of Paris the quartern. In many of these years the average rose 
Bread. g^g high as 7d. per quartern, and in some years this average 

was exceeded. A pretty French loaf is known as a couronne; it is 
circular in shape, and is moulded at the top in ornamental scrolls, some- 
Avhat like our wedding cakes. We have seen some fine specimens from 
the north - western departments of France. The use of rye bread is 
apparently dying out in France, except in certain parts of the country. 
The rye loaves are usually round and rather flat, with diagonal cuts 
French Rye across the top. The French peasant likes his rye loaf 
Bread. thoroughly baked. Though rye bread and loaves from 

coarsely ground wheat flour are still to be seen in parts of rural France, 
the typical Frenchman prefers a white loaf. Twenty-five years ago the 
peasant was still content, to a great extent, to eat dark bread, but to-day 
things are greatly changed in this respect. The land is now covered 


■with roller mills from north to south, from east to west, and in small 
villages in typical rural districts white bread is often to be seen. It 
is noteworthy that the cult of brown bread has made little headway 
in France. The mass of Frenchmen have no liking for dark-coloured 
loaves. This may be explained by the fact that French bread in the 
main is of agreeable flavour; French wheat has a good deal of sweetness 
about it, and the bulk of the bread baked in France recalls the best speci- 
mens of English bread made from blends into which entered a generous 
proportion of Norfolk or Cambridge flour. In this land of ours a good 
deal of the popularity of the darker-coloured patent breads seems attribut- 
able to the malt extracts and other preparations with which most of them 
are flavoured. 

German Bread 

In Germany rye bread is still in considerable vogue, and the taste 
for it is by no means confined to the poorer classes. Whatever may 
be his breakfast fare to-day. Kaiser Wilhelm some years German 
ago would have no Kaisersemmeln on his table; such airy ^y^ Bread, 
trifles were not to the taste of this strenuous ruler. His breakfast rolls, 
known in Berlin as Kniippel, were prepared from a mixture of wheat 
and rye flour. These rolls are rather small and round; 
they have somewhat the appearance, minus the sugar, of 
the Berlin dough nuts which are a familiar object in London bakers' 
windows. The Kniippel, however, is smaller than an ordinary dough 
nut. The flavour of rye bread or of bread into the composition of which 
much rye has entered is very characteristic, and perhaps would not 
commend itself to every English palate, although at one time rye bread 
formed a good part of English working men's diet. But tastes, as the 
Romans said, are not a matter of argument. 

With a population of 60,000,000 Germany only raises, according to 
official statistics, between 15,000,000 and 16,000,000 qr. of wheat, as 
compared with some 42,000,000 qr. of rye. On the other hand, the mean 
imports of wheat — of course we are not speaking of the abnormal imports 
of the first half of the 1905-6 cereal year — are about double those of rye. 
It is very clear that rye still plays a most important part in the feeding of 
the German people, though it by no means follows that all the rye raised is 
used in bread-making. Everything points, however, to the conclusion that 
Germans are consuming more and more wheaten bread. A typical German 
dark rye bread is the Pumpernickel of Westphalia. The 
loaves are usually shaped somewhat like a fish torpedo, with ""ipemic 
not too high a dome. On cutting the loaf a very dark colour is disclosed, 
which is to be expected of the coarsely ground rye from which this bread 
is made. In preparing Pumpernickel a certain amount of rye meal is placed 
in a wooden trough and made into a thick paste by the addition of a suit- 
able proportion of boiling water. After a preliminary kneading the dough 
thus formed is left for some time in the trough at a fairly high temperature. 
Vol. 1 28 


No yeast has so far been used, but in time a certain fermentation sets up in 
the mass, and this may be quickened by a further mass of dough and a small 
amount of barm being kneaded into the first dough. When brought to the 
proper consistency, which should be very firm, the dough can be moulded 
into loaves, which often exceed 6 lb. in weight. The loaves undergo two 
bakings; the first time they are put in the oven they are only kept long 
enough to allow a crust to form and the crumb to set, on which they are 
withdrawn, and each loaf is sprinkled with water on its upper surface. As 
soon as this operation is completed the oven is recharged, great care being 
taken to keep the door tight, and the batch is baked in three to four hours. 
The result is a loaf heavy in more than one sense of the word, but with a 
not unpleasant taste, at least according to the writer's palate. 

Sometimes, we believe. Pumpernickel is made without any barm at 
all. The sprinkling or washing of the loaves when half-baked produces 
the characteristic glaze like varnish. Much the same process used to be 
followed in Prussia in preparing soldiers' bread, known as Kommishrot 
A mixture of rye meal and rye flour was used for Kommisbrot; a sponge, 
of which the basis was about 44 lb. of dough kept over from the previous 
doughing, was the only ferment used for this sort of bread, while to the 
dough a small amount of salt was added. Each loaf was supposed to 
weigh Ih kilo, or about 3j^ lb. 

In some parts of Rhenish Prussia a very black bread is made, known 
Rhenish Black- as Rheinisches Schwarzbrot, or, as we should say, Rhenish 
*"'^*^- Blackbread. Its constituents are rye meal, coarser even 

than that used for Pumpernickel. 

It must not be supposed that all the rye bread consumed in Germany 
is dark. The milling of rye is a great industry in that land and in 
Austria, and large merchant mills have been erected in both countries 
for the production of rye flour of different grades of fineness. Rye flour 
Milling Rye is made by machinery having considerable affinity with that 
Flour. used for flouring wheat, but rye-milling and wheat-milling 

are distinct processes and need separate plants. Not infrequently German 
household bread, known as Haushrot or Tafelbrot, is made from a mixture 
of rye and wheat flour; such bread is termed Ualhweisshrot, or whitey- 
brown bread. We have sampled rye bread made from fine flour which 
cut an excellent colour, but invariably a rye loaf, or a loaf into which 
any proportion of rye has entered, has a characteristically dark -red crust. 
The favourite shapes of household bread, both in Germany and Austria, 
are either round or long, with more or less pointed ends. Sometimes the 
ends are rounded. This shape is very common in Dresden, the Schrotbrot 
being a wholemeal loaf. The round-shaped household loaf may be seen 
in the Vienna Schwarzbrot (Plate Vienna Bread — IV, Nos. 7 and 9). 
Such loaves will often weigh 3 kilos, or over 6^ lb. 






Though Holland is only a very small country, the bread-making pro- 
cesses are interesting enough to be dealt with in detail. Should an English 
baker visit a Dutch bakery he would be surprised to feel Dutch Method 
the springy, slack doughs made there. As a rule milk is of Bread-making, 
used instead of water to make the dough because of the cheapness of milk. 
Generally the baker gets his milk by contract during the year at the price 
of 5|(i. to *ld. the gallon. The quantity of yeast is also considerably larger 
than in the British sponges, even as long-system doughs are unknown to 
the Dutch bakers. The proportion of yeast is not expressed, as Quantities 
in England, to the sack, but to the kilogram, which is equiva- of Yeast 
lent to 2^ lb. In some districts now the rate is 20 gm. (j^^ oz.) 
to the kilo, and in others even 25 gm. (|^ oz.), or 5'6 lb, to 7 lb. per sack 
of flour of 280 lb. The quantity of salt used is also greater, and chiefly 
at the rate of 41 to 46 lb. per sack. 

The rule that flour takes half its own weight in water to make dough 
is neglected by the Dutch baker. For instance, the stiffest doughs contain 
even 60 per cent liquor, and there is really no limit for slackness, though 
70 to 75 per cent may be taken as the general maximum. It seems rather 
strange to one who is used to the stiff" English cottage dough to imagine 
dough of this slackness, and one is rather inclined to think of a paste. The 
method of making this kind of dough is peculiar to itself. Instead of wooden 
troughs, galvanized-iron ones are largely used all over the country. To 
make the dough a thin ferment containing all the liquor and two-thirds 
of the flour is set; this is allowed to stand some twenty or twenty-five 
minutes, and then the remainder of the flour and the powdered salt is 
worked in. When these are sufficiently mixed, the difficult task for the 
Dutch baker starts. To make the dough tough and springy it wants much 
working. Small pieces of about 10 to 12 lb. are pinched off" Method of 
the main lump by both hands, and beaten and stretched Kneading, 
against the side of the trough. When one little bit is worked enough 
it is thrown into the corner of the trough, and the same operation is 
repeated on the remainder. In this way the dough is worked from 
one side to the other of the trough and back again several times, till 
the experienced baker thinks that the dough is worked enough. To 
prevent the dough from sticking to his hands, the baker dips his hands 
occasionally in a basin of water, to keep them wet all the time he is 
pinching and spreading the dough. The troughs are not dusted to prevent 
the dough from sticking, but are greased or oiled. 

As a rule Dutch doughs feel rather cold; the temperature of the liquor 
is seldom higher than 80°-85° F. Dutch bakers maintain that bread 
baked from dough which has been made from a liquor at a higher 


temperature than 85° F. never has such a rich golden colm^r as that 
Low Temperature baked from dough of which the temperature of the 
of Dough. liquor was 80°-85° F. / 

The handing up is done in a way similar to that followed in England. 
The moulding or rolling differs somewhat, as the main shape is oblong, but 
this, of course, is done as for English tin bread. 

Bread laws never existed in Holland, and this enables the Dutch baker 
to scale his bread off at his own option. The price of a loaf scaled off 
at 1 lb. 10 oz. to 1 lb. 12 oz., made from so-called milk dough, is about 
2ld. retail. The crust of Dutch bread is darker and more brownish 
than that of English bread, while also the texture is more open. When 
newly baked it is very moist and springy, but it becomes very dry when 

The photos illustrating this article will give a better idea of the shape 
and other noticeable qualities and faults. 

The most popular Dutch loaf is the Tin or Pan Loaf (see Plate, 
Dutch Bread, No. 2), as a rule (in a large bakery) made from dough 
a little stiffer than that described above. After the loaves have been 
moulded 12 to 14 in. long, they are proved upside down on a cloth. 
The cloth is raised up between adjoining loaves to prevent them from 
sticking to one another. When proved sufficiently they are cut by an 
ingenious little machine, which has the appearance of a long row of 
pairs of small scissors, worked by two handles at each end. Every 
time after the machine has been used, the scissors are dipped in a small 
tank of oil, so as to prevent the dough from sticking to them, 
and to oil at the same time the different cuts of the loaf. This 
kind of loaf is called Knip Brood (see Plate, Dutch Bread, No. 4), 
which really means bread cut by scissors. 

No. 6 on the Plate shows German or Papped Bread. The broken crust 
is obtained by brushing the tops of the loaves over with a peculiar kind 
German or of paste, consisting of flour, ground rice, yeast, foot sugar, 

Papped Bread, ^nd water. Under the influence of steam, either evolved by 
the bread itself, or introduced into the oven, this paste bursts or cracks, and 
gives the loaves their rather pretty appearance. This paste is made as 
follows. 1 lb. 6 oz. of flour is boiled with 10 pints of water till the paste 
thickens. This is thinned down by the addition of cold water when about 
to be used, so as to spread easily. A raw paste is then made with 10| pints 
water, about 9 oz. yeast, 6^ lb. flour, 8J lb. ground rice, 4 oz. sugar, and 
about 3 oz. melted butter or sweet oil. This raw paste after fermenting a 
little is first spread on the tops of the loaves rather thickly, or at least well 
smeared over them with a brush. Some of the boiled paste is spread on 

No. 3 on the Plate shows what is called English Bread. Why this 
"English" strange name was given is a mystery, the shape not being at 
Bread. ^ji ji^g ^he chief shape of English bread. Such loaves are as 

a rule baked in couples, as shown in the Plate. 








Household Bread, illustrated in No. 5 on the Plate, differs somewhat 
from the former. The chief moistening agent is water Dutch House- 
instead of milk. These loaves are set in rows of eight or ^°^^ Bread, 
ten. The two outside ones are sold as crusty, and the inside as crumby 
loaves, at the price of 2<^. per 2 lb. 

The lowest illustration on the Plate of French and Dutch Bread 
shows some that are merely a repetition of the other photos, but there is a 
couple we have not dealt with yet. On the extreme left and right sides are 
specimens of Dutch Brown Tin Bread. Brown bread is usually made of half 
white flour and half wholemeal. The left of the two centre loaves is called 
Schootyes Bread. It is shown clearly on the photo that the loaf schootyes 
consists of small pieces of dough, which, after having been moulded, Bread, 
are joined together. They are proved on long slips of wood, which are 
about the same length as the depth of the oven, and 3 in. in width. When 
they are proved enough, they are set in the oven in long rows lengthways. 
After baking, they look like long bread bars. For Id. or 2d. a certain 
number of these pieces are purchased. The very light and soft 
breakfast rolls shown on the right of the photo are made from 
a dough consisting of the following ingredients: 22 lb. of flour, 6J qt. 
of milk, 13 oz. of yeast, 5 oz. of salt, 9 oz. of butter, and 11 oz. of sugar. 
A ferment is made as described before; then after dough has been made, 
the butter is kneaded in. After sufficient proof, they are scaled off at 
3 J oz. each, and moulded round like buns. When all moulded, the first 
lot is shaped in the following way. The hand is brought down smoothly 
on the dough with a sawing motion, thus nearly dividing it into two equal 
parts, only a small strip of dough keeping them together. They are proved 
on a cloth in rows of four, with the cloth raised up between each row. 
They have to be baked in a very hot oven. As a rule Dutch bread is 
baked at much higher temperatures than English bread, the oven in the 
case of the former being from 480° to 500° F. 

No. 1 on the Plate of Dutch Bread is a photo of Rye Bread, perhaps 
the most interesting one for the English baker. For its manufacture 
rye meal is exclusively used. 100 lb. of rye meal is mixed Dutch 
with 80 lb. of very hot water into a thick paste, the rye Rye Bread, 
being almost scalded. Sometimes a small quantity — 2 or 3 lb. — of treacle 
is added, but always from 2|-5 lb. of salt is mixed with it. When the 
paste is cooled down sufficiently the loaves are moulded and shaped in 
a square wooden frame, till they have the form and size, though not 
quite so thick, of an ordinary wall brick. To prevent sticking they are 
dusted wnth bran. The setting of this bread requires a good deal of 
experience, as no room has to be wasted. On top of the loaves wet 
boards are placed, and on top of these again a thick layer of wet offal 
is spread. Then the door is screwed to the mouth of the oven and the 
bread allowed to bake, or stew rather, in its own steam from twenty-four 
to forty-eight hours. The length of time allowed is determined by the 
amount of colour desired — whether it is wanted brown or black. The 


oven is, of course, becoming colder all the time the bread is baking, as 
the heat is not augmented in any way while the bread is in the oven. 

The oven used for baking this bread is of the old "pot" type. A fire of 
peat, wood, and sawdust is made on the oven bottom, and when heated to 
Oven for ^^^^ proper degree the fire is taken out; and, after a good clean- 
Rye Bread, ing, the bread is baked by the heat radiating from the bricks. 
There is no internal flue in this kind of oven, the draught being through 
the door opening only. In order to prevent the smoke from filling the 
bakehouse, a funnel-shaped screen, which projects the entire width of the 
oven, and has a depth of some 3 ft. at the bottom, is fixed over the door. 
On top of this funnel is the mouth of the flue, which is built on the top of 
the oven. 

As regards fancy bread, there is more variety in Holland than in 
Britain. It is called pain de luxe, and is in most cases a kind of fermented 
Dutch confectionery. Very often a Dutch baker proudly calls him- 

Fancy Bread, self " Vienna, Dresdener, and Parisian baker ". This indicates 
that he is able to make the different fancy rolls familiar in these cities; but 
there are some fancy breads peculiar to Holland. 

For variety the Dutch families have, besides the ordinary white and 
brown bread and the famous rye bread, very often currant bread on the 
Currant table. The well-to-do classes have a richer kind than the poorer. 
Bread. A. very common currant bread, that is not much dearer than the 
ordinary white bread, is sold in great quantity. The dough for this 
consists of 100 parts of flour, 2 of yeast, 1"5 of salt, 65 of water, and 85 of 
currants. It is made in the same waj^ as described above, only the currants 
are added last of all. The price of these loaves is 1 lb. 10 oz. for 2|d. 

The rich kind is different altogether. The dough for this consists of 
the following ingredients: 100 lb. of flour, 70 lb. of currants, 30 lb. of 
sultanas, 50 lb. of citron peel, 8 lb. of yeast, 75 eggs, 15 lb. of butter, 60 lb. 
of milk, 1 lb. of salt, and a few drops of citron oil. After a dough has been 
made of the flour, milk, eggs, salt, and yeast, and allowed to prove for some 
fifteen minutes, the butter is worked in first and then the fruit. It lies till 
proved sufficiently, and is then scaled off*, handed up, and moulded in oblong 
loaves from 12 to 14 in. in length. These are proved on baking sheets, and 
washed over with egg, and cut like a baton with a knife before going in. 
The baker gets a fairly good price for this, averaging from 1 lb. 10 oz. 
for 8d. 

The Englishman now has his plum pudding, mince pies, &c., at Christ- 
mas. The Germans, and in our days to a great extent the Dutch people, 
Christmas ^ave their Weihnachtstolle (see Plate, Vienna Fancy Bread — 
Bread. JV^ Nqs. 23, 26). The Dutchman sometimes gives them the 

same name, but he also speaks very often of Kersthrood, which means 
the same thing. To make a good Weihnachtstolle requires much care 
and experience. As a rule it is difficult to obtain a good recipe for this 
bread. Many bakers, especially in Germany, make it their special one. 
Some bakers increase the quantity of butter, whilst others add some 


ground bitter almonds. Make a dough of the following ingredients: 
10 lb. of flour, 3^ pt. of milk, 8 to 10 eggs, 1| oz. of salt, and 6^ oz. of 
yeast (a ferment should be made with all the liquor and one-third of the 
flour). When the dough has lain for some fifteen to twenty minutes, work 
in the butter (2^ lb.), and last of all the fruit, 6 lb. of sultanas and 4 lb. 
of citron peel (sometimes a little citron oil is added). Care should be 
taken that the dough feels firm and springy when the butter is worked 
in. When proved sufficiently scale off" to weiglit desired, hand up, and 
mould in the usual way. When moulded round, press the centre quite 
thin with a rolling-pin, so that the dough is nearly divided into two 
halves; then fold one half over the other. The loaf thus obtained will 
have the appearance shown on the plate. After baking dust them over 
with icing sugar. The best way to do this is to sieve the sugar over 
the loaves. The latter get then quite a snowy appearance. This kind 
of business pays the baker well. Weihnachtstolle weighing about 2 lb. 
are sold at Is. Sd. to 2s. 

A peculiar kind of rye bread, different from the English or Dutch rye 
bread, is very popular in Sweden. 15-20 lb. of water, at 105° F., 50 lb. of 
rye meal, 8 oz. of salt, 4 oz. of yeast, and a little caraway seed Swedish 
(if wanted) is made into a dough. When the dough has been Rye Bread, 
made it is dusted with flour, wrapped up in a cloth, and covered with a 
woollen blanket, and allowed to prove from two to three hours in a warm 
place. If after that time the dough has shifted, it is kneaded again with 
some flour, and allowed to ferment some time again in the same way. 
After sufficient proof it is scaled off and moulded. The lumps of dough 
are — edther with a rolling-pin or by hand — made into flat round cakes, 
from 12 to 14 in. in diameter and ^ in. in thickness. In the centre a hole 
of 2 in. in diameter is cut. These cakes are removed by special forks to 
a board and allowed to prove sufficiently. Then they are baked on the 
bottom of the oven, which has been previously heated by a wood fire. 
After the baking the cakes are brushed to remove the dust, and placed 
on sticks. To dry the cakes thoroughly, the sticks are suspended from 
the ceiling of a warm room for a couple of days. When baked they 
should have a light yellow-brown appearance. They are made to keep 
for any length of time when thoroughly dried. A better quality of this 
bread is made by taking milk instead of w^ater, and by the addition of 
a small quantity of butter and white flour. 

To make Dutch Karlsbad Salt Sticks, take 11 oz. of flour, 1 oz. of 
sugar, 4 oz. of butter, a pinch of salt, and h oz. of yeast, or an equivalent 
quantity of baking powder. Make with cold milk into a stiff dough. Then 
cut small pieces, roll them to the length and thickness of an Dmch 
ordinary lead-pencil. Wash them over with water, and sprinkle Karlsbad 
salt and ground caraw^ay over them. Place them on tins, and 
bake them them off quickly at a steady temperature. After baking, soak 
them with melted butter. 

The following is the recipe for Dutch Tea Sticks: 9 oz. of butter 


melted, 1 lb. 6 oz. of flour, 9 oz. of sugar, 5 eggs, 1^ oz. of carbonate of 
ammonia. Stir the melted butter, sugar, and eggs well to- 
getlier. Then add the flour gradually, and work this well in. 

Flavour with the zest of one lemon. Make from this dough short cut 

sticks, and bake lightly on tins. See Plate, Vienna Fancy Bread — III, 

Nos. 4, 5, 6. 



To bakers of less than fifty years ago, with vague ideas as to the nature, 
properties, and functions of yeast, the title of this chapter would have been 
Nature of Yeast but a meaningless phrase, yet they were daily using pro- 
discovered, cesses, the outcome of ages of practical experience, which 
resulted in the formation of materials admirably suited to the growth and 
reproduction of yeast. Such processes had been arrived at by purely 
empirical methods, and it remained for science to explain the reasons for 
their use, and to amplify the methods by indicating possible variations. 
To a native of Delft, by name Antony van Leeuwenhoek, belongs the 
honour of having discovered yeast to be a living organism. He died in 
1723. It was not, however, until 1837 that three independent investigators, 
namely, Cagniard Latour, Th. Schwann, and F. Kiitzing, brought forward 
evidence to show that fermentation was a result of the life activity of 
yeast. It remained for Pasteur, in 1862, to dispose finally of the theory of 
spontaneous decomposition, and to establish the vitalistic theory of fermen- 
tation. The yeast cell having been admitted to the realm of living matter, 
its activities naturally became classifiable with the metabolic functions of 
all other living bodies. Its capabilities of growth, reproduction, and decay 
being once demonstrated, the problems of its nutrition, respiration, and 
excretions followed as a natural consequence. To these questions an army 
of workers have devoted themselves, and great advances have been made, 
yet much still remains to be done before the life history of a yeast plant 
can be authoritatively written. 

For the baker, unfortunately, much of the knowledge gained aftbrds 
very little enlightenment respecting the important part played by yeast in 
p . f the fermentation of dough. Narrowing the problem down to 
Yeast in its simplest aspects, we may say that in a dough yeast per- 

Dough. forms two functions: it produces the gas necessary to bring 

about vesiculation of the bread during baking, and it also induces altera- 
tions in the chemical nature of the gluten of the flour, softening it, and in 
extreme cases destroying its original physical properties entirely. In order 
to discharge these functions efficiently, so that the effects are in perfect 
equilibrium — that is to say, sufficient gas production and just the right 
amount of gluten change being both effected in approximately the same 


time — it is essential that the yeast shall be capable of living and growing 
vigorously, and not merely vegetating or sluggishly fermenting in a par- 
tially moribund state, conditions which can only result in low fermentations 
and sour, heavy, unpalatable bread. Yeast, then, in order that it may 
function normally, requires food; in other words, it must be supplied with 
material it can assimilate and utilize for building up its cell matter and 
reproducing itself. 

It is of the first importance to ascertain how far the medium into which 
a yeast is sown is capable of supplying the requisite nutritive principles, 
and to what extent it should be supplemented by the addition Essentials of 
of special materials which we shall designate yeast foods. Yeast Food. 
Now, the principal needs of yeast, as of all living cells, are water, air, nitro- 
genous matters or proteins, carbonaceous matters, as sugars, &c., and salts. 
It is important to note that the nitrogenous matter is needed in several! 
different forms, partly as true protein, and partly in certain combinations 
known to chemists as amides and amino acids. These latter bodies are of 
great importance, since they act as powerful accelerators of yeast activity. 
They are indeed similar in constitution and properties to the extractive 
principles obtained from meat extracts, and consequently are true physio- 
logical stimulants. Apart from water and air, all the nutritive principles 
will need to be present in flour if it is to suffice for yeast sustenance with- 
out the addition of special foods. 

In olden times the baker did not need to buy a yeast food. He un- 
consciously made one every time he set a ferment or made a sponge. 
Sown into a nutritive medium, generally of flour with boiled potatoes, the 
yeast multiplies rapidly, the condition of ample liquid supply being espe- 
cially favourable. Moreover, during growth and reproduction other secondary 
changes proceed in the medium, partly as an outcome of the yeast activity,, 
and partly due to the bacteria which always accompany yeast. As a net 
result of these actions, the gluten in the medium becomes radically altered 
in constitution; it takes on very active properties towards other gluten^ 
which it quickly softens, so that when a dough is made with a sponge or 
ferment it rapidly becomes sufficiently ripened for the oven. It is to the- 
introduction of straight-doughing systems, in conjunction with the use of 
highly cleaned modern flours, that we must ascribe the very general demand 
for some form of yeast-accelerator as an adjunct in fer- why Yeast Foods 
menting bread. The growing opinion in favour of a ^^^ ^^^^ '" Dough, 
shorter working day also distinctly favours the adoption of anything which 
tends to hasten the process along. Yeast foods are sometimes used for 
sentimental reasons: bakers who have discarded potatoes think they must 
use something, although excellent bread can be made without any addition 
to flour except yeast, water, and salt. 

A good yeast food fulfils two important requirements. By presenting 
readily fermentable matter to the yeast, it facilitates gas pro- Function of 
duction, its function in this respect being that of a conser- Yeast Food, 
vator of yeast effort; secondly, it may furnish material of a soluble nitro- 

VOL. I. 29 


genous nature for the growth and reproduction of the yeast, and in this 
case it is truly a food. The materials commonly drawn upon to furnish 
yeast foods are compai-atively few in number, they are very similar in 
character, and with one or two exceptions are quite inexpensive. The 
baker who is master of his craft should therefore have no difficulty in 
providing a yeast food suitable to his trade and mode of working from 
ordinary materials which may be bought in the open market. A very 
cursory glance at the list of substances given below will show that in 
Common all of the common yeast foods carbonaceous matter for 

Yeast Foods, conversion into alcohol and carbon dioxide is the chief con- 
stituent. Sugar, or some form of modified starch capable of ready trans- 
formation into sugar forms the basis. Thus we have: scalded flour, mashed 
potatoes, malt flour, malt extract, baked flour, cane sugar, glucose. In 
considering the nature of yeast foods, it is important to make a distinction 
between some of the many substances commonly classed under this heading. 
Moisture-retainers and flavourers are to be placed in quite a different cate- 
gory. They may or may not be yeast foods, but in any case they ought 
not to be confounded with true yeast foods, but should be considered as 

When the composition of flour is critically considered, it may fairly be 
asked whether indeed there is real necessity for such substances as yeast 
No Need for a foods. From a large number of analyses it is found that 
Yeast Food. flour contains an average of 2 to 3 per cent of sugar, which 
is said to consist of maltose and cane sugar in about equal proportions. 
Now Dumas has shown that the amount of carbon dioxide required to 
raise an ordinary dough can be obtained from less than 1 lb. of sugar for 
each 100 lb. of flour. Again, the soluble proteins in flours vary between 
the limits of l'5-2'5 per cent; that is to say, in 1 sack (280 lb.) of flour 
there is present from 4 to 7 lb. of soluble nitrogenous matter ready for 
absorption by the yeast plant. Apparently, then, there is sufficient to 
permit of a fivefold to sevenfold increase in yeast. Even should this 
quantity of protein become exhausted, there remains the gluten, which we 
know from experience is slowly converted into soluble forms during fer- 
mentation, and may in that condition become suitable for absorption by 
the yeast. The figures clearly show that the crude materials required for 
fermentation already exist in flour abundantly sufficient to satisfy the 
requirements of bread-making. Why, then, add more? The answer has 
been given above, viz., for greater speed of fermentation. 


Potatoes must be considered as the earliest yeast food. Where and 
when they were introduced no records now exist to show, but it is certain 
Composition that until recent years potatoes were universally in use for 
of Potatoes, ^j^jg purpose throughout England. The mean composition of 
raw potatoes is given by Konig as follows: — 






chiefly Starch. 



Mean of 239 analyses... 







At first sight, then, it would seem that potatoes can liardly be con- 
sidered of much use as yeast food, since they are so very poor in nitro- 
genous matters. The explanation Ol their efficacy must i^at^re of Nitro- 
be sought in the qualitative nature of these nitrogenous genous Matter 
constituents. According to Kellner, fully one-half of the '" otatoes. 
total nitrogen is present as amides and other extractive bodies. E. Schultz 
found, among other bodies, peptone, xanthin, asparagin, leucin, and tyrosin 
in the non-albuminous, nitrogen compounds. Of these extractives asparagin 
at least has been proved to exercise a powerful stimulating effect upon 
enzyme activity; thus J. Effront found that upon adding -05 gm. of 
asparagin to a starch solution containing diastase, a yield of 61^2 per cent 
of maltose was obtained in the same time as 863 per cent maltose was pro- 
duced in a check experiment without this reagent. It will be noted that 
the activity of the enzyme is increased nearly eight times by the addition 
of only "05 per cent of asparagin. It has been determined that potatoes 
contain about S per cent of asparagin, so that in a one-sack dough, for 
which from 7-12 lb. of potatoes would be used, nearly ^ oz. of this stimulat- 
ing agent would be present, and there appears to be good ground for the 
view that although the nitrogenous matter in potatoes is small in quantity, 
yet a very high proportion of it is present in forms which are especially 
useful to yeast. 

When potatoes are boiled the starch grains do not become disintegrated, 
as in the case of cereal pastes, unless the boiling is unduly prolonged. 
This is to be attributed to the fact -that the walls of the cells into Potato 
which the starch grains are packed exert considerable pressure upon Starch, 
the contained starch, and thus prevent the individuals bursting. The conse- 
quence is that each starch grain, although greatly swollen and fissured, 
remains intact, the granulose or gelatinous part of the starch remaining still 
enclosed. In this condition starch is a very efficient water-retainer, without 
that stickiness which results with scalded flour. Further, the starch grains 
are sufficiently altered for diastasic enzymes to act upon them when present, 
and to convert them into sugars. This property of potato mash explains its 
undoubted value as a moisture-retainer and bread-improver in the physical 

On the other hand, it must not be forgotten that potatoes are very 
prone to certain diseases, and dangerous fermentative bacteria are fre- 
quently present on the skins. The presence of the ropy j^anger of Disease 
bread organism Bacillus viesentericus can frequently be in Potatoes, and 
demonstrated by washing the skins, especially around the ^^^ *" *^® Bread. 
eyes, with some sterilized water, and then inoculating sterile bread and 
cultivating for 12 hours in the incubator at 35' C. (95° F.). 


Potatoes are nearly always used in ferments, though a few bakers who 
have adopted straight-dough methods have transferred their old custom to 
the new process and continue to use fruit, as potatoes are called in the 
bakehouse. They are generally used in quantities of 7 to 12 lb. per sack, 
the washed potatoes being thoroughly boiled in about 1 gallon of water, 
and afterwards mashed to pulp and strained off the skins. The resulting 
mash is then seeded with yeast, with the addition of a small quantity of 

Scalded Flour 

In various forms scalded flour has been largely used during recent 
years. It is perhaps the baker's sole attempt to manufacture a bread- 
Scalded Flour improver, for, as will presently be shown, scalded flour has 
as Yeast Food. ^ Jq-^ value as a yeast food. In composition it will closely 
resemble the cereal from which it is prepared, the chief alterations taking- 
place as a result of scalding being the rupture of the starch grains and 
conversion of the material into a gelatinous paste, the rendering of the 
albumins insoluble by the heat of scalding, and the destruction by the 
same agency of any ferments which may have been present. As a true 
yeast food, therefore, scalded flour is distinctly lower in value than raw 
flour, since it is flour with its soluble proteins and ferments destroyed. 
On the other hand, the starch has been rendered soluble, and if any dias- 
tasic ferments are introduced with the yeast, doubtless maltose will be 
formed, and this material then becomes a good basis for gas formation. 

From a large number of experiments conducted at the National Bakery 
School, London, it would appear that the effects of scalded flour in bread 
Experiments on are physical rather than chemical, and for this reason it 
Scalded Flour, must be regarded primarily as a bread-improver, and to a 
very small extent as a yeast food. These experiments showed that only a 
very slight change of the gelatinized flour into glucose could be detected, 
whilst the characters of the bread produced were such as might be expected 
when a difficultly drying gelatinous material is added. Thus in proportions 
up to 3 lb. per sack beneficial results were noted. The colour of crust was 
better, the crumb was whiter, and the retention of moisture was markedly 
improved. The volume, however, instead of being greater, as might cer- 
tainly be expected if gas evolution resulted in increased amount, was indeed 
entirely in the opposite direction of closeness. This effect is accentuated 
with increasing quantities of the scalded flour, so that when 10 lb. per sack 
is used the bread becomes soggy and impossible to bake thoroughly. 
Bread containing such large quantities as this has a marked raw, starchy 
flavour, even when quite dry, and this lends additional support to the views 
expressed above. 

Cane Sugar and Glucose 

Cane sugar and glucose are two substances very frequently employed, 
mainly perhaps because it is popularly thought that the chief function of a 



yeast food is to yield gas. As we have already sliown, this is an incorrect 
view, and these substances being practically devoid of nitro- cane Sugar 
genous constituents are not yeast foods at all. The follow- ^"'^ Glucose, 
ing analyses of these substances will show the chief differences in com- 
position between them: — 


Cane Sugar 

Glucose and 




Cane Susfar — 

Centrifugal, good ... 





Beet, first quality ... 





Refined, granulated... 






Refined, yellow 










J Mean of 52 
( analyses. 
[Mean of 59 







• analyses, 
V American. 






Dry chips. 

Refined cane sugar is probably the purest chemical substai>ce met with 
in commerce, the solid matter consisting as it does of 99 per cent sucrose. 
It contains practically no nitrogen, and consequently is neither a true food 
nor a stimulant. It is, in fact, a gas-producer pure and simple. Cane sugar 
is a disaccharide, and is not directly fermentable by yeast. It must first be 
changed into a monosaccharide, and this change is accomplished by yeast 
through the agency of its enzyme, invertase. When working with cane 
sugar, not more than 2 lb. per sack are necessary, this quantity being more 
than sufficient to yield all the gas required, and at the same time still leave 
a residue which will give the bread a sweet flavour and a rich bloom. It 
is, in fact, for the purpose of giving the bread this bloom that sugar is 
generally used. 

Glucose is a monosaccharide, and consequently is directly fermentable 
by yeast. It is usually obtained from starch by the action of an acid and 
the subsequent purification and concentration of the resulting syrup. In 
addition to the substances shown in the analysis there are usually small 
quantities of undetermined bodies which result from the action of the acid, 
and sometimes give a slightly unpleasant flavour. Like cane sugar it 
contains no nitrogenous matter, and cannot assist yeast multiplication; it 
is, however, quite the best gas-producer which can be used, since the yeast 
can begin to act upon it the moment contact is made. It thus affords a 
valuable aid where extremely short systems are desired with corresponding 
good bulk. Glucose comes into market in two forms, as solid chips or 
in thick syrup. On account of the larger percentage of moisture and its 
very much lower sweetening power, it can be used in doughs in slightly 
larger proportion than cane sugar, but the limits should generally be about 
2 lb. per sack. In addition to its gas-producing properties, glucose may 
also act as a bread-improver. 



Both cane sugar and glucose may have seriously detrimental effects if 
the dough is allowed to become overfermented. The bread will then be 
Effects of ^^y ^^^ crumbly to an extraordinary extent. A remark- 

Excessive Sugar able fact in this connection is the peculiar action of glucose 
on uten. ^^^^^ cane sugar upon gluten. It has been found by J. 

Kirkland that when large quantities are used in dough the tenacity of the 
gluten is completely destroyed, so that in a very little time it becomes 
impossible to separate any gluten by the ordinary method of washing out. 
The reason for this action is not at present clear, but it is evident that 
considerable danger is entailed by the use of excessive quantities of these 

Rye Flour 

Rye flour has long been considered a very efficient quickener of fer- 
mentation, and this is attributed to the relatively large amount and the 
Rye Flour and nature of the soluble proteids in rye flour. Very little has 
its Action. been done to test the correctness of this view, and it should be 
borne in mind when considering the question, that rye is never so finely 
milled and separated as wheat is. The product in consequence is darker in 
colour, and it is also quite fair to assume that the activity of rye flour is 
largely due to the aleurone constituents of the rye bran, which would be 
separated if rye went through the ordinary separations practised in wheat- 
milling. The peculiar efl^ect of newly milled wheat flour from stone mills 
was very similar in kind, but incomparably less in intensity, to that noted 
Composition of ^^ ^^^ ""^^ ^^ ^Y^ flour, and it is reasonable to attribute 
Rye and Wheat both effects to the same agency. The following analyses 
our compare . ^^ ^^^ ^^^ wheat flours will serve to show the important 
differences between them, part of which may be due to mode of milling: — 


Nitrogenous Matters. 


(Sugar and Starch). 





Rye flour 
Wheat flour 

(a) fine 

(b) coarse 















It will be noted that rye contains rather more than double the proportion 
of soluble nitrogenous matter present even in coarse wheaten flour. Rye 
flour can be used safely in quantities up to 3 lb. per sack, the latter only 
if flour is very strong. The best method of preparation consists in mixing 
the flour into a moderately thick paste with water at 165^ F., and allowing 
the mixture to stand for three to four hours. The object of using water 
at 165° F. is to utilize any diastasic properties to the fullest advantage, 
for at this temperature starch transformation takes place very rapidly. 



Hio-her temperatures will destroy the enzymes. In a series of experiments 
with rye flour it was found that the gas yield was more than doubled 
compared with a wheaten flour test carried on for the same time. The 
proteins of rye have a degrading action on the gluten of wheat flour, and 
in excessive quantity make the dough runny and the bread flat. 

Germ and Malt Culms 

Germ and malt culms are less known and more seldom used as yeast 
foods, although both these materials contain relatively large amounts of 
chemical compounds favourable to the growth and mul- Germ and Malt 
tiplication of yeast. The following partial analyses of germ Culms, 
and culms will give an idea of the general composition of these bodies: — 



Nitrogenous Matters. 







Gums and 


Germ - 
Culms ] 





















It was at one time thought that germ was rich in diastasic properties, but 
further investigations do not support this view.^ The enzymes of germ are 
incapable of transforming the starch which is present in the germ. The 
diastasic properties are very low, and the yeast-stimulating eflects of the 
material are not due to its powers of starch-conversion, but to the soluble 
nitrogenous constituents, in which it is very rich. We have already 
alluded to the amides, e.g. asparagin, leucin, &c., and it is these bodies which 
constitute a considerable proportion of the nitrogen content of germ, sup- 
plemented by albumoses and plant peptone. It has recently been shown 
by Dr. H. Brown that these bodies are of vital importance to yeast growth, 
for, with their exhaustion from a medium, the activity of yeast gradually 
declines, ultimately ceasing, even though there may still be considerable 
amounts of soluble nitrogen left in solution and a large amount of sugar 
unfermented. From the analyses it may be concluded that there is no 
necessit}'- to consider diastasic activity as indispensable, for it will be seen 
that germ contains from 10 to 20 per cent of ready-formed sugars, or 
nearly 7 oz. in 3 lb. of germ upon the average. The eflfects of germ are 
certainly best explained by the theory that they increase yeast. The 
results of a series of interesting experiments bearing upon this point, pub- 
lished by J, Kirkland, are reproduced here. Roughly, it will be seen that 
gas production was increased proportionally to the quantity of germ added. 
In these tests, ferments containing 4 oz. flour and ^ oz. yeast in 400 of 

^ This is still a matter in dispute, and some recent experiments clearly show that fresh germ does 
exercise considerable diastasic activity. 



water at 90" F. were kept in a warm-water bath, and the gas evolved was 
measured at regular intervals. The figures obtained were as follows: — 

20 min. 

45 min. 

2 hr. 45 min. 

3 hr. 45 min. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 

cu. in. 


Ferment + ^ oz. germ 






+ 1 . 






+ 1 „ 






+ H „ 






+ n „ 






„ + 21 „ 





Germ may be used in quantities up to 2 lb. per sack with perfect safety. 
The best method of use for white bread is to make a decoction by steeping 
Method of the desired quantity of germ in water at about 160° F. for an 
using Germ, hour, and then straining the liquor off through muslin. In 
white bread it is better not to use the solid germ, on account of the yellow 
colour of the particles; yet if the germ itself is clean and mixed, not in 
the flour, but in the water, it is very difficult to see any yellow spots in 
the resulting bread. The liquor, however, will impart no colour to the 
resulting bread, unless used in very excessive quantities. 

Culms, or malt coombings, are the broken rootlets from malt. They are 
similar in all respects to germ as regards their yeast-stimulating properties. 
They are already used considerably as yeast food in the in- 
dustries of brewing and yeast-making. Culms may be used up 
to 2 lb. per sack, and should be introduced in exactly the same manner 
as germ. Both these substances are to be recommended in preference to 
potatoes. Germ and malt culm extracts contain all the stimulating proper- 
ties of potatoes minus the dangerous bacteria. In the bread, also, germ and 
culms are natural flavour-producers, imparting richness and nutty taste. 

Malt Culms. 



Malt Flour and Malt Extract 

Perhaps the most widely used yeast foods and bread-improvers at the 
present time are the various forms of malt flour and malt extract; yet 
Malt Flour and there are few substances liable to wider variations in com- 
Malt Extract. position and value or which present such great difficulties in 
detecting those differences. For the non- technical man there exist no tests 
by which good samples may be sorted out from poor ones. 

Malt may be obtained by artificial germination of any cereal. For 
several reasons, however, barley is the one generally employed. The grain, 



after cleaning, is first steeped in several changes of water, and then spread 
out in tliin layers upon floors and allowed to sprout. The Preparation 
process occupies about eight days, during which time the °^ ^^'^• 
mass is frequently turned to prevent local heating, &c. When sufficiently 
grown the " piece ", as the floor of grain is called, is transferred to the kiln, 
a kind of oven where it is slowly dried, and finally raised to a tempera- 
ture sufficient to cure it and produce the required flavour. Malt and Barley 
The following analyses of barley and malts will show the Compared, 
changes brought about by the process of malting. The analyses of the 
malt are by O'Sullivan. 


Nitrogenous Matters. 





Soluble in 

Cold or Warm 



Cold and at 

70° C. 



Bfirley ... 

Malt, No. 1 

„ No. 2 











As a consequence of the growing process malt contains, when properly 
made, large quantities of the active bodies called enzymes. The following 
are known to be present: diastase, maltase, invertase, peptase, and cytase(?). 
In addition to these powerful chemical agents it also contains large 
amounts of soluble carbohydrates formed from the starch of the endosperm. 
The most important property of malt products is the content of active 
agents, but these delicate substances are exposed to many risks at every 
stage of the process of preparation, and it may often happen that an 
extract or flour will be quite devoid of diastasic or proteolytic activity. 
In malt flours age is perhaps the greatest danger. When ground, malt 
absorbs moisture with great avidity, and the enzymes are quickly weak- 
ened, and destroyed when the malt becomes at all slack. Similarly, too 
gi-eat heat in kilning, extracting, or in the final evaporation of a malt 
extract, will have the same effect, and the resulting extract will be little 
better than a concentrated syrup. On reference to the analyses of 
O'Sullivan it will be seen that quite large amounts of fermentable sugar 
exist in malt, and by careful extraction this may be largely increased if 
the temperature is properly regulated. If the temperature is carried to the 
extreme diastasic limit, the whole of the starch in the malt will be changed 
into sugar, and will thus become capable of extraction, but this result will 
be obtained at the expense of the diastase, which in all probability will be 
entirely lost. 

Dr. H. Brown has recently shown that the soluble proteins of malt 
consist of albumoses, peptones, and amino acids to the extent of 60 per 
cent of the total soluble nitrogen present. It is important Composition of 
to remember that in low-temperature extractions the active ^^^^ Proteins, 
enzymes increase the soluble nitrogenous matters. It will also be seen how 


Vol. I. 



important it is that during concentration the temperature is not raised 
too high, else the soluble proteins are coagulated and thrown out of solu- 
tion. Malt extracts are generally used in comparatively small amounts, 
insufficient to have any pronounced -effect in either direction. Except on 
the ground of cost there is no reason why quantities up to 5 or 6 lb. per 
sack should not be used, in which case distinctive results would be ob- 
tained. In excessive quantity — 10 lb. or more — malt extract acts similarly 
to other sugars; the bread becomes short and crumbly, and the colour is 
adversely affected. The use of malt extracts is largely due to the attempt 
Composition of to provide the subtle flavour supposed to have been lost 
Malt Extracts, through the exclusion of germ and bran cerealin from 
modern roller-milled flours. The following analyses will give an idea of 
the composition of some commercial malt extracts: — 









Time Taken 

to Transform 

Equal Weight 













5 mill. 
10 „ 
5 „ 

The diastasic property is the most important principle of a malt extract, 
and a good sample should be capable of converting an equal weight of 
starch in ten minutes at 55° C. (131° R). During fermentation of a dough 
there is probably very little starch conversion, even with the most actively 
diastasic extract, unless there is gelatinized starch of some kind present 
also, in which case sugar will be formed and gas evolution will be 
accelerated. When only the raw starch of the flour is present, practically 
no change can take place until the bread is in the oven. Here, as the 
interior of the loaf will rise very slowly to 212° F., there will be time for 
some starch change to take place whilst the temperature ranges from 
140° to 180° F., and considerable sugar may then be formed. These sugars 
will remain in the bread, forming flavour and moisture retainers, since it 
will be impossible for yeast to attack the sugar, as it is killed at tempera- 
tures below that of starch transformation, viz. about 125° F. It is as a 
bread-improver, therefore, that malt extract needs to have a good diastasic 

A ready method of evaluating the diastasic power of a malt extract 
consists in treating '5 gm. of dry starch with hot water and bringing 
Test for ^o the boil; then make up to 100 c.c. Dissolve 5 gm. of 

Malt Extract, the sample extract in 100 c.c. of water. Take 20 c.c. of 
starch solution and cool to 60° C. (140° F.); then add 1 c.c. of the malt 
extract solution, and place in a water bath at 60° C. (140° F.). At intervals 
of 15 minutes remove one drop of the solution with a glass rod and place 
on a tile; then add one drop of solution of iodine in potassium iodide. 


Continue until the iodine solution, instead of giving a deep -blue, yields 
only a pale -yellow colour. Add fresh quantities of 1 e.c. malt extract 
each half-hour until this result is obtained. If the malt extract is good 
it will not require more than 2 c.c. to obtain this result. 


Milk is used to some extent in bread-making, and it may be properly re- 
garded as a bread-improver. There are now upon the market many brands 
of dried milk, and as this material can be very conveniently Mjik as 
stored without risk of deterioration, it is generally preferable Yeast Food, 
to purchasing the liquid. Much of this dried milk, however, has more 
or less of the original fat removed, and in some cases may be little more 
than a mixture of casein and lactose. It is better, therefore, to obtain a 
guarantee of the fat content when purchasing. 

Milk sugar (lactose) is commonly said to be non-fermentable by yeast, 
but certain yeasts (kephir) are now known which can split this sugar into 
dextrose and galactose by means of a special enzyme, after 
which fermentation takes place in the usual way. But ex- 
periments have shown that the compressed yeast used by bakers has 
practically no effect on milk sugar. Generally lactose becomes fermented 
to lactic acid, as is expressed in the following equation: — 

CjgHaaOi^ + H2O = 4C3H6O3 

Lactose. Water. Lactic acid. 

This change is brought about by many species of bacteria. The 
flavour, colour, and texture of bread are very materially improved by 
the use of milk, and doubtless the soluble albumins also furnish some 
food for yeast growth. It should not be used in excessive quantities, 
because of the binding effects of large quantities of casein. The best 
mode of using is to dilute the milk with an equal bulk of water. Fer- 
mentations of milk bread should not be too prolonged, else the multiplica- 
tion of lactic germs may proceed so far as to cause destruction of gluten, 
and consequent crumbliness in the bread. 

There is little doubt that the fat introduced with milk contributes 
largely to the silkiness and texture of the bread; hence care should be 
exercised when using dried milks to ensure getting a material which 
has not been entirely deprived of its fat. A genuine dried unseparated 
milk should have approximately the following composition: — 

of Dried Milk. 

Such a powder, upon reconstitution with warm water in the proportion 

Per Cent. 


4-5 to 7-16 


28-7 „ 2-2-45 


25-3 „ 26-83 


36-18 „ 36-31 


5-24 „ 6-93 


of 1 part by weight to 8 parts of water, will yield a fluid exactly similar 
in composition to ordinary cows' milk. 



In order to raise bread or other goods, a gas must be liberated within 
the mass, which, by its expansion under the rising teinperature of the 
First oven, can form a multitude of cavities throughout the material. 

Aerating keeping the layers apart until such time as the gluten sets into 
^^" ^' .a tenacious film. The earliest aerating agent was undoubtedly 
yeast in the form of leaven, and later, when its properties became known, 
brewers' yeast, or that prepared by the baker in his barms. With the 
advancement of chemical knowledge it became evident that other methods 
of obtaining this gas could be employed without resorting to the process 
of fermentation. Such processes yield unfermented or chemical bread, 
and among the objects of the originators of these methods may be men- 
tioned the saving of time effected and the prevention of that loss of solid 
matter, variously estimated at from 1 to 3 per cent, which results from 
the fermentation of sugar by yeast. It has also been claimed that the 
addition of certain of these saline substances to bread replaces the reduced 
salts in white flour brought about by the removal of the bran. The 
best example of such a substance is the Horsford-Liebig 
Powder, well known in Germany, and one of the earliest of 
baking powders. This consists of a mixture of acid calcium phosphate 
and sodium bicarbonate. 

On the other hand, it is well to remember that with the majority of 
these artificial aerators there is a considerable residue of chemicals left 
in the goods which is of a more or less potent medicinal cliaracter, whilst 
the chemical agents used do not exercise those softening effects upon the 
gluten which occur during yeast fermentation, and, in consequence, bread 
made by such processes is apt to be flat and raw-tasting. In the case of 
fancy goods, e.g. scones, cakes, &c., this failing is not so noticeable on 
account of the sweetening and flavouring materials present in predominat- 
ing quantities. For this reason, and also because in some mixtures, where 
large quantities of sugar, milk, and eggs are being used, it is difficult, and 
sometimes impossible, to get yeast to work, the artificial aerating materials 
find more favour with confectioners than with bread-bakers. One product 
of the bread baker has, however, been frequently made by artificial agents, 
viz., brown bread. The idea was, that on account of the bran principles 
which are included in wholemeal flour, the doughs made with them will 
not stand any lengthy yeast fermentation without great alteration of 
gluten, and there is great danger of insufficient gas formation unless the 



fough is allowed to become badly over-ripe. This was only true, however, 
with slow- working barms and long processes; and the difficulty is easily 
overcome with a quick-working yeast. In order to avoid this trouble in 
the past, artificial raising was largely practised, and even now it is some- 
times resorted to. Of course in such cases the flavour of the bran masks 
any defect in ripening flavour. Certain proprietors of wholemeal breads 
adopt this method in part by adding small quantities of baking powder 
to act as aids to the yeast. 

It seems highly probable that the earliest applications of artificial 
aeration were due to accident rather than design, for it is in such foods 
as gingerbread, honey cake, &c., where yeast is inappli- Q^g produced by 
■cable, that their use would appear to have originated. Aerating Agents. 
The only gas which has been successfully applied to this purpose is 
carbon dioxide, which, curiously enough, is the gas naturally produced 
by yeast. Two properties make this gas particularly suitable for the 
purpose, the first being its great solubility in water, and the second the 
harmless nature of the substances from which it can be prepared. No 
other gas could be obtained from solid materials without leaving behind 
powerful chemical salts, which would in most cases be highly poisonous. 
Almost the sole source of the carbon dioxide (COg) used in the bakery 
is sodium bicarbonate (NaHCOg), though potassium carbonate (K.^COg) 
is used to a small extent. The acid used for liberating the gas, however, 
varies greatly, and it is to the variation in the acid constituents that 
the different baking powders owe their origin. 

Sodium Bicarbonate, or Saleratus (NaHCOg), was formerly obtained 
by passing carbon dioxide gas into solutions of normal sources of Sod' 
sodium carbonate. The reaction which took place is re- Bicarbonate 
presented by the equation — 

and Pearlash. 


Sodium carbonate. 




CO, = 

Carbon dioxide. 


Sodium bicarbonate. 

The bulk of it is now, however, made by the Solvay process, which 
consists essentially in passing carbon dioxide gas under pressure into 
a brine solution saturated with ammonia gas. The change is given 
below — 





CO., = 

= NHCl 








chloride (salt). 





Potassium Carbonate, Potashes, or Pearlash (K^COg), was originally 
obtained by calcining wood and plant refuse. The ash was extracted 
by water, and the salts obtained by evaporation of the liquid -formed 
potasJtes. Potashes is generally slightly impure, and is purified by treat- 
ment with water and recrystallization, the product then being known as 
pearlash. Potassium carbonate is also obtained from beetroot residues 
obtained from the manufacture of beet sugar. Large amounts are now 
also obtained from the Stassfurt deposits in Germany. 


When sodium bicarbonate, either alone or in solution, is heated above 
Result of heat- ■'^^^° ^- (^12° F.) it yields one-half its carbon dioxide and 
ing Sodium becomes converted into normal sodium carbonate. Thus — 


(a) 2NaHC03 = " Na..C03 + H^CO., 

Sodium bicarbonate. Sodium carbonate. Carbonic acid. 

(6) H2CO3 = H,0 -f- CO., 

Carbonic acid. Water. Carbon dioxide. 

The carbonic acid which results from the first change cannot exist in 
the free state, and therefore it breaks up, producing carbon dioxide and 
water. In studying the foregoing reaction, it should be noted that we 
start with an acid salt, and the result of heating it is to dissociate it 
into a normal salt and the excess acid, the latter being then resolved 
into carbon dioxide and water. The character of the residue also re- 
quires consideration. Sodium carbonate is common soda, similar to that 
used for washing purposes, and has a strongly alkaline reaction. Its 
effect upon flour and saccharine materials is to impart a strongly marked 
Effects of yellow colour, and it also gives the goods the strongly 

Washing Soda caustic taste familiarly associated with the name of soda. 
On account of these unpleasant results sodium bicarbonate is 
never used alone, though owing to the use of improper proportions in making 
baking powders excess of the bicarbonate is often present, which immedi- 
ately becomes apparent in the goods. The household method of making^ 
Sour Milk soda scones by means of sour milk, or buttermilk and saleratus, 
and Soda, ig a close approach to the use of soda alone. In the process of 
butter-making the milk is soured by the action of bacteria present, with 
the production of small amounts of lactic acid. This acid rarely amounts 
to more than "5 per cent, and even in very sour milk will not reach nlore 
than 1 per cent. Unfortunately, such small quantities of acid are quite 
insufficient to neutralize more than a fraction of the bicarbonate which 
must be used if proper aeration is to be attained, and the unchanged bicar- 
bonate, on heating in the oven, undergoes the change already described,, 
leaving alkaline sodium carbonate as a residue in the scone. The reaction 
between lactic acid and sodium bicarbonate may be written thus — 

HC3H5O3 + NaHC03 = NaC3H503 -|- Hp -f CO^ 

Lactic acid. Sodium bicarbonate. Sodium lactate. Water. Carbon dioxide. 

Sodium bicarbonate requires rather more than its own weight of lactic acid 
to neutralize it. It would, therefore, be quite impossible to use sufficient 
sour milk to neutralize the bicarbonate required for scone-making. 

It is well known that in mixings containing large quantities of sugar, 
syrup, honey, or treacle, the yeast plant cannot thrive and ferment properly; 
Use of Pearlash consequently such articles cannot be raised by the fer- 

in Gingerbread, &c. mentative process. It was long ago discovered, how- 
ever, that if pearlash was added to the treacle or other syrup material 
before putting into the flour, the doughs so made, after keeping for a time,. 



which may vary from two days to nearly twelve months, would be partly 
aerated, and turn out good gingerbreads or honey cakes as the case might 
be. This is the basis of the Dutch and German methods of honey-cake 
making, and also that of gingerbread production in this country. It was 
considered necessary at one time to add also small quanti- Alum and 
ties of alum, which, as we shall see later, is an acid sub- Peariash used, 
stance capable of liberating carbon dioxide from potashes, but probably the 
great value of this salt lay in its hardening action upon the gluten, thus 
preventing too great a softening. 

In this country sodium bicarbonate is still used alone in making ginger- 
bread, peariash being discarded. The chief agent bringing about the libera- 
tion of gas is to be found in the syrups, which are usually vvhy Gingerbread 
slightly acid at the time dough is made. This acid slowly Aerates when 
increases during the time of lying, chiefly owing to the °"^ ^^ ^^ ' 
increase of certain bacteria. The reaction bringing about gas evolution is 
very slow, partly because of the high viscosity of the medium and partly 
owing to the very small amounts of acid actually present. It is not 
possible to give an equation for the reaction taking place, because the 
exact nature of the acids present has not been fully investigated. The 
addition of rapid gas-producers like tartaric acid would not be of any use 
in such mixings as the above, because the carbonate would be exhausted 
long before the material was required for the oven. 

The idea of producing carbon dioxide by means of a chemical reaction, 
so as to leave only neutral salts in the product, was first patented by 
Dr. Whiting in 1837.^ The materials he used were sodium salt produced 
bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid in the proportions required ^y Chemicals, 
to combine exactly with one another. The reaction is expressed as follows: 

Residue left in goods. 

NaHCOg + HCl = NaCl -f R^O 

Sodium bicarbonate. Hydrochloric acid. Sodium chloride. Water. 



Carbon dioxide. 

The great advantage of this method lies in the fact that only common 
salt (NaCl) remains as a residue when the right quantities are used. Care 
needs to be exercised to ensure that minimum quantities of the reagents 
are used to obtain the desired leavening effects. Perhaps the chief difficulty 
in the use of Whiting's method is to be found in the liquid form of one of 
the reagents and the consequent liability to variation in strength. The 
best method of overcoming this is to check the neutralizing power of the 
acid upon a sample of the bicarbonate. This may be done by weighing 
out about 10 gm. of the bicarbonate and dissolving in distilled water in a 
beaker. Bring to the boil, and add a few drops of litmus solution, -pestin 
Fill a burette with the acid, and then run slowly into the hot Strength 
soda solution until the colour just changes to red. Read off on the °^ ^^^^' 
burette the numl:>er of c.c. of acid used, and this will give approximately the 
volume of acid required to neutralize a given weight of sodium bicarbonate. 

> In a work published in Glasgow by a baker in 1832 reference is made to the use of soda and 
magnesium carbonates, and the same author alsp refers to the use of soda and hydrochloric acid. 


In applying this method in practice it is necessary to mix the bicar- 
bonate of soda well into the flour. Add the requisite amount of acid to 
the water for dough-making, and then make dough in the usual way. 
The quantities of reagent to be used should be based upon the amount of 
sodium bicarbonate required for ordinary baking powders, and the neces- 
sary acid adjusted to suit; about 10 oz. of sodium bicarbonate should be 
sufficient for 1 cwt. flour. The chief danger attending the use of hydro- 
chloric acid is the possibility of contamination with arsenic. It must be 
guarded against by purchasing the purest acid under guarantee of freedom 
from this poisonous element. These substances were once extensively used 
in making wholemeal bread, but are hardly ever employed now. 


Tartrate Powders 

An important advance was made in artificial aeration by the substitution 
of solid acid substances for the liquid hydrochloric acid, for this enabled 
mixtures of aerating materials to be made with the flour for long periods in 
advance of requirements, thus securing a great economy of labour. Self- 
raising flour then became a marketable commodity. Another advantage is 
that water only is needed to bring about gas production. The typical acid 
used for this purpose is tartaric acid (H2C4H40g). It is prepared from 
argot, a crude deposit of potassium hydrogen tartrate, obtained as lees from 
the casks used in wine-making. The reddish-coloured deposit is boiled with 
water to purify it, and the solution afterwards crystallized. A fresh solu- 
tion of the crystals is then made and treated with chalk, so that insoluble 
calcium tartrate is formed. The deposit is collected and treated with the 
exact quantity of sulphuric acid required to liberate the tartaric acid, the 
calcium sulphate thus formed is separated ofl", and the tartaric acid solution 
Tartaric Acid is then allowed to Crystallize. Tartaric acid crystals may be 
and Soda. reduced to powder and mixed with sodium bicarbonate, no 

reaction taking place between them so long as moisture is absent. In order 
to minimize the danger of moisture attacking the powder, all commercial 
baking powders are diluted with a proportion of air-dried starch, which 
acts as a drying agent. The quantity of starch used for this purpose is 
very variable, but generally ranges between 23 and 50 per cent of the total 
mixture. In some few powders lactose or milk sugar is used instead of 
starch. When tartaric acid is used, the reaction results in the production 
of neutral sodium tartrate in accordance with the following equation: — 

Residue left in goods. 


+ 2 NaHCOg 




+ 2C0o 

Tartaric acid. 

Sodium bicarbonate. 

Sodium tartrate. 


Carbon dioxide. 



The practical drawback to the use of this agent is that the evolution 
of £jas is too rapid, and the reaction is spent before the goods are ready for 
the oven. This results in considerable loss of carbon dioxide in moulding, 
&c., and there is no reserve for gas evolution during baking, so that there 
is danger of insufficient bulk in the finished articles. This difficulty is 
overcome by the substitution of Potassiwni Hydrogen Tartrate (Cream of 
Tartar) for the free acid. This salt is the original form soda and Cream 
in which tartaric acid occurs in the wine lees, and it is °^ Tartar, 
obtained by simple solution and recrystallization. For preparation as a 
baking powder, cream of tartar is powdered and mixed with sodium 
bicarbonate and starch in the usual manner. When treated with water, 
however, owing to the lesser solubility of the acid salt, it does not quickly 
enter into action with the soda, but when the goods are brought into the 
oven, the increasing temperature facilitating solution of the acid salt 
causes a rapid evolution of gas just at the time it is most necessary. 
The reaction is expressed thus: — 

Residue left in goods. 


+ NaHCOa 






Potassium hydrogen 

Sodium bicarbonate. 

Potassium sodium 



The residual salt, potassium sodium tartrate, is known commercially as- 
Rochelle salts. 

Both the residues left when tartaric acid is used have somewhat 
marked purgative properties, and care should be taken not to use them in 
excess. Another danger attending tlie use of tartrate impurities in 
powders arises from the liability of the tartrates to Tartrate Powders, 
contain lead. The lead is dissolved by the acids from the vessels used in 
the process of manufacture; and though only present in very small quan- 
tities, yet, in view of the serious cumulative effects of small amounts of 
lead, it is very desirable to avoid introducing such dangerous poisons into 
foodstuffs. From the large number of prosecutions lately occurring under 
the Food and Drugs Act, it appears to be very common for traces of this 
metal to be present in baking powders which contain tartaric acid, and it 
is therefore necessary to obtain a written warranty of freedom from lead 
when purchasing tartrate powders. A good cream-of-tartar powder will 
yield about 13 per cent of gas. The common impurities and adulterants 
of cream of tartar are gypsum (calcium sulphate), calcium phosphate, 
bone meal, &c. These impurities, being insoluble, will be found mixed in 
the starch after treatment of the powder with hot water. They may then 
be recognized microscopically. 

Alum Powders 

The very successful application of cream of tartar soon led to the 
attempt to replace this comparatively expensive salt by 
something of a cheaper nature, and various acid sulphates 
and phosphates have been put upon the market. The alum powders belong 

Alum Powders. 

Vol. I. 



to the sulphate class, and consist generally of calcined potassium or am- 
monium alums, or mixtures of aluminium sulphate with ammonium or 
potassium sulphate. When mixed with the right proportion of sodium 
bicarbonate, and treated with water, the following reaction takes place: — 

Residues left in goods. 

K2Al2(S04)4 + GNaHCOg = A12(6H)6 + SNa^SO^ + K^SO^ + BCOo 

Burnt Sodium Aluminium Sodium Potassium Carbon 

potash alum. bicarbonate. hydrate. sulphate. sulphate. dioxide. 

Much controversy has raged around the use of these substances, and 
authorities have been pretty evenly divided as to the harmfulness, or 
otherwise, accompanying their use. It is claimed by those seeking to 
abolish their employment that the aluminium hydrate has a distinctly 
retarding action upon digestion, by coagulating and hardening the proteins 
of food, whilst the sodium and potassium sulphates are more powerful 
purgatives than tartrate salts. On the other hand, the very small quan- 
tities of these substances entering into finished foods, together with the 
long period during which they have been used without producing marked 
ill effects, are put forward as points in favour of the view that the damper 
to be feared is greatly exaggerated. Without expressing an opinion upon 
the physiological aspects of the question, it must be remarked that the use 
of alum in bread is strictly prohibited, and that the use of such powders in 
confectionery is also liable to be attended by unpleasant consequences in 
those districts where officials holding pronounced opinions upon this subject 
administer the Food and Drugs Act. 

Alum is readily detected by means of the logwood test. A small por- 
tion of the powder to be tested should be made into a paste, with a little 
Test for Alum water and two cubic centimetres of a fresh alcoholic tincture 
in Powders. gf logwood added; then add another two cubic centimetres 
of saturated ammonium carbonate solution to ensure alkalinity. If alum 
is present, a more or less purple colour will result, becoming more pro- 
nounced on drying. In the absence of alum the colour will be pink. 

The other sulphate powders in common use are potassium hydrogen 
sulphate and sodium hydrogen sulphate. The reaction with these salts is 
as follows: — 

Residue left in goods. 

I. KHSO4 + NaHCOg = KNaSO^ + B^O + CO^ 

Potassium hydrogen Sodium Potassium sodium Water. Carbon 

sulphate. bicarbonate. sulphate. dioxide. 

II. NaHSO^ + NaHCOg = Na^SO^ + Kfl + COo 

Sodium hydrogen Sodium Sodium Water. Carbon 

sulphate. bicarbonate. sulphate. dioxide. 

Both the residual salts are strongly purgative, and for this reason the 
sulphates are not to be recommended as constituents of baking powders. 
„ . , , The sulphates may be detected by making a solution of the 

Sulphate powder, and filtering clear. To the clear solution add a few 
Powders. drops of hydrochloric acid until the solution is distinctly acid, 
then add a drop or two of barium chloride solution. A heavy white 


Sir William Bilsland, Bart., born in Stirlingshire in 1847, 
spent his early years on a farm, and in 1869 started business as 
a grocer in Glasgow. Three years later he opened a bakery, from 
which has developed the large firm of Bilsland Brothers, now 
including also the old-established concern of Gray, Dunn, & Co. 
Elected to the Town Council in 1886, he became Lord Provost and 
Lord Lieutenant of Glasgow in 1905. He is a fellow of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland and a member of the Royal Scottish 
Geographical Society. He was created a Baronet in 1907. 

John Stevenson, born in Glasgow in 1847, was educated at 
the High School and Helensburgh Academy. He served an 
apprenticeship in a law office, but abandoned the law to join his 
father and brother in the business of corn and flour merchants. In 
1867 the firm acquired a baking concern and installed machinery, 
then little used in bread-making. The business of J. & B. Steven- 
son has grown steadily, and now has large bakeries in Glasgow 
and London. Mr. Stevenson has been Deacon of the Incorpora- 
tion of Bakers and President of the Corn Trade Benevolent 

James Macfarlane, born in Glasgow in 1857, was educated 
in the High School and University, and received his first business 
training in a shipowner's office. In 1878 he joined his father's 
baking firm of Macfarlane, Lang, & Co. He was President of the 
Scottish Association of Master Bakers in 1900. In 1893 he was 
Deacon of the Incorporation of Bakers, and in 1899 Deacon Con- 
vener of Trades. 

William Beattie, born in the North of Ireland in 1853, settled 
in Glasgow in 1866, and served his apprenticeship to baking. He 
started business on his own account in 1876, and is now head of 
the Dennistoun Bakery, which has a great reputation for hand- 
made bread. He is a leading member of the Royal Glasgow 
Institute of the Fine Arts. 







precipitate indicates the presence of sulphates. Since alum will also yield 
this reaction, the logwood test should also be applied if it is desired to 
differentiate between alum and the alkali sulphates. 

Phosphate Powders 

The phosphate powders are by far the most successful substitutes for 
tartrates in baking powders, and most of the cream powders with which 
the market is now flooded are compounded with acid phosphates phosphate 
of calcium (lime), potassium, or ammonium, either alone or in Powders, 
admixture with proportions of tartrates and sulphates, and sometimes even 

The calcium salt is obtained by acting upon bone ash with just sufficient 
sulphuric acid to remove two-thirds of its calcium as calcium sulphate, 
thus converting the insoluble tricalcium phosphate into soluble acid cal- 
cium phosphate. These powders are very cheap as compared with tartrate 

Cream powders have no definite fixed composition, the compounding of 
them generally being trade secrets, and varying at the caprice of the 
manufacturers. The Horsford-Liebig powder, which is one of the oldest 
of these compositions, has the following proportions: Acid phosphate of 
calcium, 550 parts; sodium bicarbonate, 113 parts; potassium chloride, 100 
parts. About 10 lb. of this mixture is recommended per sack of flour. 
One of the best-known proprietary self-raising flours in this country is 
also made with phosphate powder. 

The reaction when acid calcium phosphate alone is used with sodium 
bicarbonate, is expressed thus — 

Residues left in goods. 

CaH4(P04)2 -I- 2NaHC03 = CaHPO^ + Na2HP04 + 2H2O + 2CO2 

Acid calcium Sodium Calcium hydrogen Disodium Water. Carbon 

phosphate. bicarbonate. phosphate. hydrogen phosphate. dioxide. 

whilst with acid potassium phosphate it is expressed thus — 

Residue left 
in soods. 

KH2PO, + 2NaHC03 = Na.,KP04 + 2H2O + 2C0.^ 

Potassium Sodium Disodium Water. Carbon 

phosphate. bicarbonate. potassium phosphate. dioxide. 

Good phosphate powders will yield 12 to 13 per cent of COg. 

The great advantage of these phosphate powders is found in the low 
aperient action of the residual salts. Furthermore, the phos- properties of 
phates possibly have a certain dietetic value, and they are Phosphate 
entirely free from the danger of contamination by lead, °^ ^"* 
and also arsenic, if the acid used in their manufacture has been reason- 
ably pure. 

Ammonia Powders 

All the baking powders hitherto dealt with leave a saline residue after 
the evolution of gas has been accomplished; the one we now have to 


consider differs from all of them in that it is completely resolved into 
Ammonia gaseous compounds under the influence of heat. Ammonium 
Compounds, carbonate, "volatile", or "vol", are the common names by 
which it is known. It is in reality, however, not ammonium carbonate, 
but a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbamate. The 
substance occurs in hard fibrous lumps, which continually evolve ammonia 
gas. When treated with water, the powder is not decomposed with evo- 
lution of the gas, as in the case of other baking powders, but upon appli- 
cation of heat it is completely dissociated according to the following 
equation : — 

(NH4)2NH2HC03C02 = SNHg + H^O -f- 2CO2 

Arnmoiiium carbamate and Ammonia. Water. Carbon dioxide, 

ammonium bicarbonate. 

The whole of this powder, therefore, becomes gaseous; but although vola- 
tilized, it does not entirely escape from the goods during the baking, and so 
articles made with " vol " can generally be detected by the nose. It is more 
commonly used in biscuits than in any other goods. No danger whatever 
can attach to its use, and in this respect it is one of the safest of baking 

The most important test to make when valuing a baking powder is the 
determination of available carbon dioxide, since upon this property depends 
Q , ,p . its practical value to the baker or confectioner. The deter- 
for Aerating mination may be made very easily in a yeast-testing ap- 
-^S^"*^- paratus (fig. 8 in Vol. I, p. 86). A small flask should be 

attached to the apparatus by means of some rubber tubing. Bore the 
cork of the flask with two holes, and connect one by means of a piece 
of glass tube to the rubber tube. Through the other hole pass a thistle 
funnel completely to the bottom of the flask. Into the dry flask place 
about 2 gm. of the powder to be tested, then firmly fix the cork, and 
connect to the gas jar of the yeast apparatus, which should be filled 
with water. When all is ready, pour into the thistle funnel about 50 c.c. 
of water, and warm the mixture in the flask until gas ceases to be given 
off". Allow to cool, and read the volume of gas produced in the gas jar. 
Deduct the volume of water added, e.g. 50 c.c, from the number obtained, 
and the remainder. will be the volume of gas given oflf by the weight of 
baking powder taken. The amount of COg in " vol " cannot be tested in 
this manner, but it may be found by substituting dilute acid for the water 
in the foregoing experiment. Perhaps the best test for vol is to heat 
a portion in a porcelain dish. If pure the salt will be completely vola- 

Other Methods of Aeration 

A method of aerating bread doughs, the invention of Dr. Dauglish, was 
Da li h introduced in 1856. It consists in impregnating the water used 
Aeration for dough-making witli carbon dioxide under pressure. The solu- 
Method. yiity of all gases increases directly with the pressure, and it is 
possible, therefore, to cause water to take up very large amounts of gas by 


suitable compression; this is indeed the principle of the manufacture of 
soda water and other aerated drinks. 

In the Dauglish system the carbon dioxide was obtained by acting upon 
chalk with sulphuric acid, and absorbing the gas evolved in water in strong 
compression cylinders. The dough was then made in a closed apparatus simi- 
larly under pressure, so that the finished dough was really saturated with 
carbon dioxide gas. Upon baking, this gas by its expansion caused the vesi- 
culation of the loaf. The method has been worked continuously since its 
inception, but has never been adopted by any manufacturers, except the 
company originally exploiting the process. It is well adapted to factory 
working, but requires too much special machinery to be capable of adoption 
by small craftsmen. The bread produced by this method is in most respects 
similar to other unfermented bread. It has the advantage over these 
breads, however, in being free from any saline residues of the reactions. 
The method has been modified in several respects since its introduction. 

Many articles of confectionery depend for their aeration upon the use 
of eggs or other film-producing liquid. By far the most efficacious agent 
for this purpose is white of egg, which, by proper beating or Raising 
whisking, can be made to form a stiflf froth which will stand Properties 
firm, and when heated will expand without bursting the walls ° ^^^' 
of the vesicles. Gluten and blood albumen in a less degree also possess 
similar properties. 

Certain substitutes which are put forward for use in place of eggs, 
however, are of very small value. They generally consist of powdered 
gelatines, and though quite capable of being whipped into ^^^ Substitutes 
a lasting froth, yet they utterly fail to expand when put for Aerating 
into the oven. The explanation for this difference in phy- urposes. 
sical behaviour must be sought in the chemical nature of the substances. 
Albumens, of which white of egg is a typical example, when heated strongly 
are converted into insoluble substances generally of a flexible horny nature 
— in other words, the substance is capable of setting even in presence of 
much water. The gelatines, on the contrary, when heated in this way do 
not harden or set, but actually become softened, and in presence of suflacient 
moisture they melt and form thin liquids. 

Yolk of eggs can also be made to retain air by whipping, but not to 
anything like the same extent as whites, because of the smaller proportion 
of albumen yolk contains, and the presence of larger Raising Powers 
proportions of fat, both these factors tending to prevent °^ ^°^^ °^ ^SS- 
the formation of strong films which produce a froth. This eflfect of oil or 
fat is at once apparent should any become accidentally mixed with white 
of egg which has been separated for beating purposes. 

Fat is largely used by the confectioner as an aerating and shortening 
agent, and familiar instances are to be found in pufif and short p^^ ^^ ^^ 
paste, shortbreads, &c. The mode of operation of fat is best Aerating 
illustrated in puff" paste, where the fat is first made to form a thick ^^"*' 
layer upon the sheet of dough, and then by successive foldings and rollings 


the two layers are reduced to extreme thinness and piled upon one another. 
If such a dough is cut through, it may be likened to a number of sheets of 
paper closely pressed together, yet each sheet prevented from adhering to 
its neighbours by the grease film which covers it. Now imagine such a 
piece of dough brought into the oven. The moisture in the mass is slowly 
converted into vapour, and in expanding forces the layers apart, since the 
matter forming the layer is too closely compacted to open out on account 
of its impregnation with the melted fat. The paste is thus formed into a 
light friable mass consisting of very thin leaves. 

The lifting power of moisture in pufF pastes is not great, and conse- 
quently considerable care has to be taken not to exert too much force during 
Why Puff working; else the layers become forced into one another, really 
Paste rises. Jq^q their continuity, and allow the steam when produced to 
escape without lifting the layers, a heavy paste being the result. 

In short pastes and shortbread the method of incorporating fat is 
different, and is not designed to bring about the formation of layers. The 
Action of Fat mechanical action of the fat is, however, quite similar to its 
in Short Paste, effects in puff paste, for during the rubbing in, it coats the 
individual particles of the mixing, and isolates them from each other, thus 
preventing any lumping together. When heat is applied, the vapour 
formed in the interior forces these fat -surrounded particles away from 
each other, and a short or open crust is formed having no continuity of 
the binding agent. 


All greasy substances obtained from animal or vegetable sources may 
be called oils whether they are solids (fats) or liquids. The whole of 
General Pro- the bodies belonging to this class of substances possess the 
perties of Fats, characteristics of unctuousness, i.e. greasy feel, insolubility 
and immiscibility in water, solubility in certain organic liquids, such as 
ether, chloroform, alcohol, carbon disulphide, benzene, turpentine, &c. 
They are all lighter than water, the specific gravity var3ang between 
•910 and "970. They form stains upon paper which cannot be evaporated. 

Fats and oils have no boiling-point, and when heated to about 480°- 
570° F. they are decomposed, the oil becoming dark in colour and emitting 
Action of Heat much acrid vapour (acrolein) and carbon dioxide. When 
on Fats. exposed to air and light, oils gradually undergo change, 

becoming paler in colour and eventually bleached, and acquiring a strong 
unpleasant odour and taste {rancidity). This change in odour and flavour 
Rancidity and of the oil is accompanied by an increase in the amount of 
its Cause. fatty acids; but it has been clearly shown by manj 

observers that the quantity of free fatty acids cannot be used as a measure 



of rancidity. Direct oxidation by contact with air, assisted by the action 
of light, is now considered to be the cause of rancidity. This action of 
air is greatly accelerated by the presence of nitrogenous matters in the 
oil, considerable amounts of which are always to be found in crude or 
badly refined oils. In consequence of its complex nature rancidity cannot 
be determined by purely chemical processes; taste is the ultimate criterion 
to determine whether a given oil is suitable for alimentary purposes. 

Pure fats and oils are neutral in reaction, but owing to their exposure 
to light and air aU commercial oils have a more or less marked acid 
reaction. With one or two exceptions (croton oil, castor oil), Neutrality of 
which contain certain toxic principles, all oils obtained from ^^^^ ^^^^• 
animal or vegetable substances are edible, though many are not used for 
that purpose in Europe by reason of certain harsh or peculiar flavours. 

In chemical composition all naturally occurring oils are now known 
to be complex mixtures of ethereal salts. The base present in these salts 
is glycerol, the acid radicals being various members of the chemical Com- 
group of fatty acids, the lowest member of which is acetic position of Oils, 
acid. The number of these fatty acids is very large. The most important 
for industrial purposes are the following: — 
















All these acids are monobasic, i.e. they contain only one atom of replaceable 
hydrogen, and this is exhibited in the formula by separating the group 
containing this hydrogen. Glycerol belongs to the alcohol series of com- 
pounds. Its chemical formula is 03115(011)3. The termination "in" is 
applied generally to all combinations of glycerol with fatty acids to form 
glycerides or fats, e.g. butyrin, stearin, laurin, olein, linolein. 

Like other salts these glycerides may be broken up into their con- 
stituent acids and glycerol by suitable reagents. The process Hydrolysis 
in the case of fats is called hydrolysis. Thus treatment of °f ^^^s- 
a fat with steam at high pressure, or heating with sulphuric acid, yields 
glycerol and fatty acid according to the following equation: — 

(Ci5H3iCO,)3C3H5 -h 3H,0 = 03H,(OH)3 + 3C,5H3i-COOH 

Palmitin. Water. Glycerol. Palmitic acid. 

This process is largely employed in the manufacture of candles, &c., and 
in the production of rancidity it probably also plays a part. Saponifica- 
When certain other reagents, such as the alkalies, are em- ^ion of Fats, 
ployed to decompose fats the reaction is called saponification. In such 


cases the alkali combines with the acid radical to form a new salt called 
a soap. This is represented by the equation — 

(CiyHggCCJgCsHs + 3NaOH = C3H5(OH)3 + SCi^HgiCOONa 

Olein. Sodium hydrate. Glycerol Sodium oleate (soap). 

When soda is employed a solid or hard soap results, and when potash is 
used soft soap is produced as a result of this combination. In baking. 
Action of ^^® ^^® ^^ excessive quantities of sodium carbonate as an 

Alkali on Fat aerating agent in goods containing fat would result in the 
a ing. conversion of some of the fat into soaps, with consequent 

decrease of nutritive and digestive properties, the soaps being slightly 
purgative in their action. 

The consistency of the fats and oils depends entirely upon the pro- 
portions in which the chief constituents are present. Now the chief 
Basis of Dif- constituents of all the common fats and oils are stearin, pal- 
ferent Fats. mitin, and olein, the other glycerides occurring only in small 
quantity. Stearin is a hard solid fat at ordinary temperatures; palmitin 
is solid, but of a more buttery nature, whilst olein is liquid. In the hard 
solid fats, such as tallow and mutton fat, stearin predominates; in the 
softer solid fats, like beef fat, palmitin is present in largest amount, or, as 
in hog's fat, a considerable quantity of olein is present; whilst the liquid 
oils are composed chiefly of olein. This is of importance to the baker, for 
the tough character so important for paste-making will depend upon the 
Physical Pro- pi'esence of a due proportion of stearin and palmitin, and on 
parties of the other hand sufficient of the softer olein must be present 

a ers ats. j£ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ possess good creaming properties. The manu- 
facturer of butter substitutes thus has it in his power to obtain either 
property at will, and there is no reason why the individual baker by 
judicious selection should not compound his own fats if he is prepared 
to take the trouble. 

Fats are introduced into bread and confectionery for a variety of 
reasons. They increase the nutritive value; this, however, is by no means 
Why Fats ^^® primary reason for their use by the baker and confec- 
are used by tioner. In bread they improve the texture and sheen, and 
* ^ ^ ^^' impart richness to the eating qualities. In cakes and pastry 
they exert well-known shortening properties, and upon the body of the 
fat used depends largely the quality of the product. Finally, fat is used 
for the flavour it imparts. In this respect butter stands alone; all other 
fats, however well they may fulfil the other requirements, fail entirely to 
produce the characteristic mellow flavour yielded by pure butter. 


Butter is the typical fat for confectionery purposes. It consists of the 
fat of milk, together with small quantities of curd, milk sugar, and salts. 
This substance is produced by churning milk, or more usually cream, by 
which process the tiny globules of fat are caused to coalesce and form 



granules. The fine spongy mass, containing much liquid milk, is next 
worked to remove the liquid portion until it forms a homogeneous mass, 
which is then ready for market. The following is the average normal 
composition of pure butter according to Konig: — 



Casein (cmd) 


Milk sugar 






Chemical Com- 
position of Butter. 

Owing to the method of manufacture, butter is liable to variations in 
its composition, chiefly in the percentage of water contained. It is illegal 
(Butter and Margarine Act, 1907) to sell butter containing more water in 
than sixteen per cent of water. Recently there has been put Butter, 
upon the market a mixture made by churning milk into butter; it is sold 
as Milk-blended Butter, but a distinctive name is to be Milk-blended 
devised for it by the Board of Agriculture. By this process Butter, 
the moisture is greatly increased, but the Act already referred to makes it 
illegal to sell this kind of butter with more than twenty-four per cent of 
water, and the actual percentage of water or moisture must be declared 
on the wrapper. The great fault to be found with such butter, apart from 
the excess of moisture, is its greatly deteriorated keeping quality, in spite 
of the presence of boric acid preservatives. 

Pure butter fat is a complex mixture of the glycerides of butyric, 
caproic, capric, caprylic, palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids. About 7 per 
cent of the fatty acids are soluble in water, and this very Composition of 
high percentage forms one of the most characteristic Butter Fat. 
features of butter fat, so that upon a determination of these acids the 
analyst is frequently able to form an opinion of the purity of the sample. 
The composition of butter fat was found by Bell to be as follows: — 

Butyric acid 

Caproic, capric, and caprylic acids 

Palmitic, stearic, and myristic acids 

Oleic acid 

Glycerol ... 


Of the insoluble fatty acids oleic is the most abundant, and conse- 
quently the melting-point of butter is very low, about 31° to 34° C. (88° to 
^21^ F.). The fat of the human body is also largely composed of olein, and 
the close approximation of butter to human fat largely explains the ready 
digestibility of butter fat. Butter is very apt to turn rancid. Some of 
the glycerides become decomposed with liberation of the free fatty acids, 
notably butyric acid, which gives the butter a very offensive odour and 
flavour. This decomposition is largely dependent upon the presence of 
Vol. I. 32 


nitrogenous matter in the form of curd; and when all foreign substances 
Influence of are removed from the fat, butter may be kept indefinitely. 

Curd in Butter, "pj^g butter is melted and kept hot until all water is driven 
off; this is known to be the case when all crackling ceases. The liquid 
fat is then strained through muslin, poured into bottles, and cooled. If 
kept well corked it will remain good for any length of time. In hot 
climates this process is extensively used (Indian Ghee). 

Perfectly pure butter is frequently almost pui'e white, and is seldom 
more than very pale yellow. For the market, however, it is usually 
Colouring coloured by means of vegetable colouring matters, e.g. annatto, 
of Butter. turmeric, saffron, &c. Upon exposure to light butter loses its 
colour, and becomes tallowy in taste and smell. The peculiar aroma and 
flavour of butter are due to the presence of micro-organisms which take 
an active part in the ripening of the cream. This is proved by the fact 
Cause of that the desired odour and taste are not found in sweet cream 
Flavour. butter, or butter made from sterilized cream, both of which 
have insipid flavours. This question has been very fully studied during 
recent years, notably in America, where pure cultures of the bacteria pre- 
pared in the laboratory have been distributed to the dairies; and by this 
means the well-known "June flavour", only found in certain districts for 
short seasons of the year, can now be artificially produced at any time. 

Commercially butter is valued not only for purity as determined by 
chemical tests, but also for odour and flavour. Such valuation requires 
c mmerciai ^^P^^t skill which can Only be acquired after long experience. 
Value of Adulteration is now practised upon a most extensive scale. 
Butter. Y,^^ ig practically confined to the admixture of small quantities 

of foreign fats, the non-fatty adulterants being too easy of detection. 
Adulteration has kept pace with the advance of analytical knowledge, and 
Adulterants mixtures are now made which will closely conform to the 
in Butter. standards of the public analysts. The detection of small 

quantities of foreign fats, such as lard, goose grease, cotton-seed oil, cocoa- 
nut oil, palm-nut oil, and margarine, involves the possession of considerable 
Butter analytical skill, and should be entrusted to a trained chemist. 
Analysis. The examination for water, curd, salt, and preservatives will, 
however, be found useful at times to detect the grosser forms of adultera- 

Moisture is best determined by drying 5 or 10 gm. of the sample at 
105° C. (221° F.) in a small weighed dish until all crackling has ceased. 
Cool and reweigh; the loss is equivalent to water. The percentage is 
found by multiplying the loss by 100, and dividing by the weight of fat 

Salt. — The fat should be burnt off, preferably in a fume chamber. The 
residue may be taken as salt, and calculated as a percentage in the same 
manner as moisture. Salt in butter should not exceed 3 per cent in mild 
butters, but may rise to 5 or even 10 per cent in salt or pickled butters. 

Curd or Casein. — Drive the water off a weighed portion of the sample 


(5 gm.). Carefully decant the clear fat from the solid residue; then wash 
the residue with ether or hot amyl alcohol, decanting the liquid each time 
after the solid has settled. Finally, dry the residue and weigh. This 
represents curd and salt. Deduct the salt already found, and the remainder 
is curd. 

Foreign Fats. — The fat may be examined by Valentas test, which is 
useful for indicating admixtures of large amounts of foreign fats. A test- 
tube is graduated by running from a burette two quantities of Valenta's 
3 c.c. of water; make a file scratch indicating each graduation. '^^^^• 
Dry the tube and then introduce 3 c.c. of the melted clear fat and 3 c.c. 
of acetic acid of 99 per cent strength. Warm the mixture to 40° C. 
(104° F.), when, if the sample is butter fat, the contents of the tube will 
become clear. If margarine is present it will not dissolve below 75° C. 
(167° F.). The best way to carry out this test is by immersing a ther- 
mometer in the mixture. When the solution is clear, remove the tube from 
the flame, and while stirring observe the liquid carefully. As soon as a 
turbidity is seen following the bulb of the thermometer note the tempera- 
ture. Another test useful for sorting out samples has been put forward 
by A. W, Stokes. Place a small portion of the unmelted Microscopic 
butter upon a glass microscope slide; press a cover glass ^^^^ *^°'' Butter, 
upon it, and examine with 1-in. or |-in. objective with polarized light. 
Genuine butter appears almost uniformly dark throughout the whole field, 
but if crystalline fats like margarine are present, more or less well-marked 
lighting of the field will be observed. This test is rapid, but should not 
be accepted as conclusive, because old butters may show somewhat crystal- 
line appearance. 

Preservatives. — Formerly the only preservative added to butter was 
salt; but with the advance of chemical knowledge many other substances 
have been proposed. The chief substances used are: boric acid, salicylic 
acid, formalin, and fluorides. 

Of these hoiHc acid is the most important. There is a difference of 
opinion among dietetic authorities as to whether it is harmful or not. The 
recommendations of the Preservatives Committee limit the amount of 
boric acid which should be present in butter to 5 per cent, and they 
strongly recommend that no preservative of any kind should be used in 
food intended for infants or invalids. The recognition of boric Test for 
acid is comparatively easy. A portion of the butter should Boric Acid, 
be reduced to ash after adding a little carbonate of soda. To the ash add 
a few c.c. of concentrated sulphuric acid and a little alcohol; then apply 
a light. If boric acid is present a green-tinged flame results. The reaction 
is delicate, allowing of the detection of 01 per cent of the acid. Practically 
all imported butters contain some boric preservative. 

Salicylic acid is seldom used now. It gives a violet colour with 
ferric chloride. After extraction of the watery portion Test for 
with ether evaporate the ether, take up the residue in a Salicylic Acid, 
little water, and add a few drops of ferric chloride. 


Formalin is more frequently used in milk. It may be detected by 
Test for Hehner's method. Add to a portion of the melted fat a little 
Formalin, milk, and then carefully pour down the side of the tube an 
■equal bulk of strong sulphuric acid. A violet colour at the junction of 
the liquids indicates the presence of formalin. 

Fluorides are now used at times, especially in butters coming from 
Brittany. Melt a portion of butter, separate the watery layer, and make 
Test for Fluorides it alkaline with carbonate of soda. Evaporate to dryness 
in Butter. ^nd put the residue in a lead or platinum dish; add a few 

•drops of concentrated sulphuric acid and cover with a waxed watch glass 
upon which a few marks have been made with a sharp point. If fluorides 
^re present the marks will be etched into the glass wherever exposed. 

Renovated butter, or process butter, is largely made in the United 
States, where the output has reached some 5,000,000 lb. per annum. It 
Renovated is prepared from unsaleable, rancid butter by melting it and 
Butter. separating the fat from the watery layer and curd. The fat 

is next "blown" with air to remove the objectionable flavour, and then 
quickly cooled so as to prevent the separation of the liquid from the more 
solid fats. The cooled fat is afterwards churned again with fresh milk, 
to which suitable bacterial cultures have been added to obtain the requisite 
flavour. The milk sours and forms an artificial curd, which contains about 
the same amount of nitrogen as the curd of genuine butter. It is im- 
possible to detect renovated butter by chemical methods, the proportions 
of the various constituents being usually carefully regulated to simulate 
pure butter. Crampton obtained the following mean percentage com- 
position from some 75 analyses of renovated butter: — 









Hess and Doolittle state that process butter does not yield a clear fat 
layer when melted even upon long standing, whereas genuine butter fat 
•clears very quickly after melting. 

Clarified Butter is a term often used by confectioners. This is butter 
which has been melted and from which the scum that rises to the top has 
been skimmed. This scum consists of the casein, and some of the water is 
also drawn off" by heating. 

Butter, suet, dripping, cocoa butter, &c., are rarely purified before send- 
ing to market. For most of these naturally occurring cooking fats substi- 
General C m- ^.utes are now manufactured by the admixture of various 
position of animal and vegetable oils and fats. To this there can be 

1 e ats. little objection from a sanitary or dietetic point of view, the 
use of the cheaper and quite as nutritive oils being perfectly legitimate 
so long as they are sold under their proper names. 





Butter substitutes were originally known by a vast variety of names, 
all of which are now suppressed by law in favour of margarine. The 
production of a satisfactory substitute for butter was worked Butter Substi- 
out to a manufacturing process by the French chemist M. tutes. 
Mege Mouries in 1870, at the instance of Napoleon III. All butter substi- 
tutes consist of mixtures of animal and vegetable fats and oil, coloured 
with annatto or some aniline dye, e.g. methyl orange. It is absolutely 
essential that the ingredients used be perfectly pure and fresh. 

The animal oils generally used are oleo oil and neutral lard, both 
ingredients being prepared from the freshest beef or hog fat. The fat 
must be removed from the animal as quickly as possible, Animal Fat 
washed, sorted, and put aside to cool and harden. The fat Extraction, 
is then shredded in a machine and finally ground into a pulpy mass. This 
is next put into tin-lined vessels and heated to not more than 45° C. 
(113° F.). The more liquid portion of the fat separates, and salt is freely 
spread over it to aid separation and clearing. This liquid fat, technically 
known as "premier jus", is run off into shallow trays and put aside to cool, 
when the bulk of the stearin separates as a solid. The crystalline paste 
is then cut up and the pieces brought into a hydraulic press, and the 
liquid fat separated. This oleo oil which runs from the presses forms 
the main ingredient of margarine. 

Among the vegetable oils used cotton-seed oil and cotton-seed stearin 
are most frequently employed. The quality of the oil used depends upon 
the quality of margarine to be made, but in any case the oil vegetable Oils 
must be perfectly free from fatty acids. The best cotton- *" ^^^• 
seed oil is known in America as butter oil. Arachis, olive, and sesame oils 
are largely used in Europe, and recently refined cocoa-nut oil has come into 
use as a constituent of margarine. The oleo oil and vegetable oils, with 
a suitable proportion of pasteurized and skimmed milk, are next churned 
at a slightly raised temperature, the object being to prevent the tendency 
of oleomargarine to crystallize, and also to pulverize the mass into butter- 
like globules, producing a complete emulsion. After churning, the mass 
is cooled as rapidly as possible by circulating cold water through the jacket 
of the churning machine, and the margarine is then run into Method of 
marble or slate cooling tanks. While running out, the mass Margarine 
is made to come in contact with a strong current of ice 
water, wliich thoroughly pulverizes the margarine and solidifies the 
globules of fat so as to resemble butter granules. The mass Constituents 
next goes upon a kneading table, where salt and colouring '" Margarine, 
matter are worked in and excess of moisture is removed. The following 



is claimed to be the composition of the three chief grades of margarine 
as made in the United States: — 




Oleo oil ... 




Neutral lard 




Butter ... 



Cream ... 



Cotton-seed oil ... 


— . 










Colour ... 




In low-grade products maize oil is sometimes used, but it imparts 
a grainjT^ flavour to the margarine. In Europe lard is not used to 
any extent, and beef fat is substituted in this country exclusively. 
Mutton fat is used on the Continent, but it imparts an unpleasant animal 

The chief object of the manufacturer is to remove the tallowy flavour 
which characterizes margarine, and, where allowed by law, this is usually 
accomplished by adding pure butter. In this country 10 per cent is the 
maximum amount of butter permitted to be used, in accordance with the 
act of 1899. Other methods consist in adding small proportions of volatile 
acids, aldehydes, and glycerides, or butter perfumes, which consist princi- 
pally of volatile ethers such as propionic, butyric, and caproic ethers. 
Another important point aimed at is to produce a margarine which froths 
and browns like genuine butter when cooking. In genuine butter these 
properties are due to the presence of milk sugar and casein, and conse- 
quently the more milk that is used in making margarine the nearer this 
object is approached. In countries where the quantity of milk to be 
added is limited by law, patents have been taken out for the addition 
of a variety of substances said to produce similar effects. Among others, 
albuminoids, casein, waxes, bees'-wax, and cholesterol may be mentioned. 
The average composition of margarine is as follows: — 

Average Composition 
of Margarine. 



Proteid (curd) 






From this it will be seen that the fat is present in almost the same pro- 
portion as in average butter. The composition of the fat differs from that 
of genuine butter in the relatively large amount of stearic acid and very- 
low percentage of the soluble fatty acids, as evidenced by the following 
partial analysis of Partheil and Ferie: — 



Nature of 
Fatty Acids in 

Stearic acid 


Palmitic acid 


Myristic acid 


Lauiic acid 


Unsaturated acids, e.g. Oleic, &c. 


The low amount of volatile fatty acids may even be claimed as a 
point in favour of margarine, since when butter turns rancid it is these 
volatile acids which are liberated and cause the un- Keeping Properties 
pleasant flavour and odoui-. The smaller quantities of °^ Margarine, 
protein are also in favour of margarine, since there is less tendency to 
rancidity. From a physiological point of view there is still some differ- 
ence of opinion. It is held by some authorities that margarine is less 
digestible than butter, but, on the other hand, Hutchison is of opinion 
that margarine is almost as completely absorbed as butter, 102 lb. of 
margarine being equivalent to 100 lb. of butter. The deficiency of soluble 
fatty acids in margarine has been to some extent overcome of late by the 
use of cocoa-nut oil and palm-nut oil, which are being used in some 
margarines to the extent of 30 to 40 per cent. 

Hehner gives the following as a good test for margarine which contains 
no butter. Heat a portion of the fat with a small quantity Test for 
of alcoholic caustic potash. If any butter is present there will Margarine, 
be an odour of ethyl butyrate (pear essence). With margarine containing 
no butter no such odour will be obtained. 

The melting-point of margarine ranges from 34° to 40° C. (93°-104° F.), 
and its specific gravity is •859--863. 

Vegetable Butters. 

Vegetable Butters 

In order to supply the huge population of India, whose religious tenets 
forbid the use of beef or hog fats as food, a butter substitute was prepared 
from cocoa-nut oil and palm-nut oil. It has, however, 
since found considerable favour in Europe among vegeta- 
rians, and is also extensively used in confectionery and as a cooking fat. 
It is sold under a great variety of fancy names, e.g. lactine, vdgetaline, 
cocaline, laureol, nucoline, palmine, cocose, albene, kunerol, &c. The best 
brand of cocoa-nuts (Cochin) is used for the preparation. The selected 
kernels are ground and pressed in hydraulic presses. The oil obtained is 
purified and freed from fatty acids by treatment with alcohol and charcoal, 
or by neutralizing with magnesia. The resulting butter is a soft white fat, 
consisting practically of pure cocoa-nut or palm-nut oil. 

Another kind of vegetable butter consists almost entirely of cotton-seed 
stearin (see p. 260); it is known as " vegaline ", " cottolene ", " electol ", &c. 



Next to butter, lard is the most important fat used in confectionery and 

baking, and for many years it was the only substitute for butter. The 

term lard is now applied to all fat obtained by melting hog's fat, 

from whatever part of the animal it is obtained. At one time, 

however, the term was limited to fat obtained from the omentum or leaf 

(kidney and bowel membrane). The great bulk of the lard coming into 

commerce is manufactured in America, and according to Dr. Wiley it is 

usual to recognize the following classes: — 

Neutral No. 1 oi Leaf Lard is rendered from pure leaf carefully selected, 

r. . , T . at temperatures of 45° to 50' C. (113° to 122° F.). The 
Grades of Lard. , . „ . . 

resultmg fat is practically neutral, and is used exclusively 

in the manufacture of margarine. 

Neutral No. '2. — This consists of back fat rendered at the same tem- 
perature, and as carefully as No. 1. It is chiefly used by bakers, biscuit- 
makers, and confectioners. 

Kettle Lard. — This is a harder lard, obtained from the residues from 
No. 1 lard rendered under pressure. This lard has a melting-point about 
45° C. (113° F.). 

Prime Steam Lard. — This is an inferior variety obtained from trim- 
mings and all fat parts of the animal. Melting-point about 38° C. 
(100° F.). 

Pure lard has a salve-like consistence and granular texture. In colour it 
is perfectly white, and it possesses an agreeable taste. The lower qualities 
Properties are somewhat insipid in flavour. Fresh lard is practically 
of Lard. neutral, but upon exposure to air it gradually becomes acid in 
reaction. Pure lard varies in specific gravity from '931 to '932, and in 
melting-point from 42° to 48° C. (107° to 118° F.). The fatty acids present 
in lard are palmitic, stearic, oleic, lauric, myristic, the oleic being the pre- 
dominating acid. 

Lard is largely adulterated. At one time the product was always 
sold as "refined lard". Some refined lards coming from America have 
been found upon analysis to consist entirely of cotton- 
seed oil, mixed with just sufficient beef stearin to give 
it the requisite consistency. The application of the Food and Drugs 
Act has caused these products to be marketed as " compound lards " during 
recent years. It is claimed, however, in America that cotton-seed oil im- 
proves lard, whilst the addition of 5 per cent of beef stearin is said to be 
necessary to stiffen it. Artificial lard solidifies to a coarsely crystalline 
mass with a polished surface, whilst genuine lard is finely crystalline, with 
a dull wrinkled surface. Owing to the practice of feeding hogs upon maize 
and cotton-seed cake, modern lards are much softer and more buttery than 
formerly. Indeed, lard rendered from such hogs will yield the special tests 
for cotton-seed oil, so that positive results with the Halphen or Becchi 
tests cannot be taken as evidence of fraudulent adulteration. An older 


form of sophistication, seldom practised now, consisted in the addition of 
water. This was accomplished by beating the lard with water in whisking 

Pure lard should be neutral, and of a bland pleasant taste and odour. 
When melted practically no water should be found in it, and the fat should 
be quite clear and free from suspended particles of membrane. Lard 
&c. Lard substitutes consist chiefly of lard stearin, or lard Substitutes, 
mixed with beef fat, cotton-seed stearin, cotton-seed oil, maize oil, arachis 
oil, sesame oil. These substitutes are made by simply churning the molten 
fats and oils together, and then cooling rapidly. 

Artificial Suets 

Artificial suets are cooking fats sold as substitutes for suet or dripping. 
They are generally mixtures of suet, tallow, and cotton-seed stearin. They 
possess a consistence between that of tallow and lard which 
depends upon the quantity of cotton-seed oil present. Such 
fats are sometimes flavoured with onions, &c., to resemble dripping more 

Chocolate Fats and Cocoa Butter Substitutes 

The manufacture of chocolate, calling, as it does, for the employment 
of large quantities of cocoa butter, a demand has arisen for cheaper fats to- 
take its place. For this purpose animal fats are unsuitable, because they 
impart a distinct flavour to the chocolate which is unpleasant. Vege- 
table fats are therefore chiefly used. At present refined cocoa-nut 
and palm-nut oils are used. The pure oils being too soft, the stearins 
are separated in the same way as oleo stearin, that is, by melting and 
cooling the fat to crystallizing point, then pressing the pasty mass to remove- 
the olein. According to the time the mass remains under pressure, so the 
melting-point of the residual stearins becomes higher. The melting-point 
of these stearins is still too low for manufacturing purposes, however, and 
they are therefore strengthened by the addition of small amounts of animal 
fats. In examining such fats the most important fact is to determine the 
melting-point. It should be about 31° to 33° C. (88° to 91° F.). 



Most vegetable oils are suitable for edible purposes and preserving; 
hence practically all the oils may be and are employed thus. In India, 
for instance, both rape and linseed are readily marketable for 
food, though they are seldom used in Europe, being substituted 
by the smoother flavoured oils, such as olive, cotton, and sesame oils. Oils- 

Vol. I 33 


intended for food purposes are always refined by physical methods, the 
use of mineral acids as purifying agents introducing objectionable flav'ours. 
Alkaline reagents are not so bad, and are used to some extent. The 
general method of refining consists in extracting the oil by hydraulic 
pressure in the cold — "cold-drawn". The crude oil is then ti-eated with 
boiling water or steam, and filtered to remove suspended matter and 
moisture. If it is necessary to decolorize the oil, it is treated with 
charcoal or fuller's earth and again filtered under pressure. Chief atten- 
tion is directed to as complete a removal of free acids, mucilaginous 
and albuminous bodies as possible, since their presence predisposes the 
oil to rancidity. Edible oils should not congeal at low temperatures. 
As a rule olive oil conforms to this demand, but many other oils, such 
a.s cotton-seed oil, must be " demargarinated" before marketing. Cotton- 
seed oil deposits stearin at 40° F., and originally demargarinating was 
accomplished by-storing it through the winter, when the stearin deposited 
and the clear oil could be decanted off. In modern establishments the 
oil is cooled in refrigerators and the separation made by filter-pressing 
the pasty sludge. The term edible or table oil is no longer to be regarded 
as denoting a single oil. Practically all table oils are now blends, and 
it is only when such are sold as olive or other specific oil that these 
mixtures are to be considered as adulterations. All natural oils are 
slightly acid in reaction; a perfectly neutral oil is insipid in flavour. 

Olive Oil 

Olive oil, also called salad oil and sweet oil, has a specific gravity at 
15° C. (59° F.) of -914; solidifying-point, 3°-4° C. (37°-39° F.) It is obtained 
from the fruit of the thornless olive, Olea europcea saliva. The 
finest oil is expressed from hand-picked and peeled olives; a 
second grade is obtained from the whole olive, and low grades from the 
kernels by pressure and the use of solvents. Olive oil varies greatly in 
colour; good oils may be anything between colourless and golden yellow. 
Some oils are tinged green owing to the presence of dissolved chlorophyll; 
these are generally low-class oils. The value of olive oil depends greatly 
Adulteration upon its flavour, and this varies with the locality in which 
of Olive Oil. \)[yQ olives are grown. The Tuscany fruits generally possess 
a more agreeable flavour than those grown in the Ligurian district. The 
rank, harsh taste of some of these oils disappears upon keeping some time. 
The fatty acids of olive oil consist principally of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and 
arachidic acids. On account of its high dietetic value olive oil is adulterated 
enormously, the commonest adulterant being cotton-seed oil, which is fre- 
quently entirely substituted for it. Other oils used for this purpose are 
sesame, rape, poppy, arachis, and lard oils. The detection of certain of 
these substitutes is not particularly difficult when they are present in 
considerable quantity, but the ingenuity of the adulterator is directed 
chiefly to the addition of a small quantity of a mixture of oils which have 


the effect of neutralizing each other, so that detection of the fraud becomes 
a matter of great delicacy which can only be successfully Tests for 
undertaken by an expert oil chemist. The following oils can Adulterants, 
be detected when present in large quantity, or substituted entirely for 
olive oil: — 

Pea-nut oil reveals its presence by the bean-like odour and flavour 
which it possesses. 

Lard oil yields the characteristic odour of lard when a portion of it 
is warmed. 

Cocoa-nut oil in from 12-15 per cent admixture causes the sample to 
solidify when placed in ice water. 

Cotton-seed oil may be detected by the Becchi test (see under Cotton- 
seed oil, p. 260). 

Sesame oil can be recognized by means of Baudouin's test (see under 
Sesame oil, p. 261), 

Almond Oil 

Almond oil has a specific gravity at 15° C. (59" F.) of •914-920: 
solidifying- point, —10° C. (-f 14° F.). This oil must not be confounded 
with oil of bitter almonds, i.e. essence of almonds (see Chap. L, 
p. 291). The oil is expressed from the seeds of the sweet and 
bitter almond tree, Prunus amygdalus dulcis and Prunus ainygdalus 
atnara. In colour it is pale yellow, and it has a bland taste. The oil is 
largely adulterated, but usually only with peach kernel or apricot kernel 
oil; indeed much foreign almond oil consists entirely of these oils. Peach 
kernel oil may be detected by shaking 3 parts of the oil with 1 part nitric 
acid of 1'4 specific gravity. Almond oil yields a light-yellow colour turning 
brown, whilst peach kernel oil gives a bright-red colour. Almond oil con- 
sists almost entirely of olein, and as it does not become quickly rancid it 
is used to a large extent in pharmaceutical preparations. 

Arachis Oil 

Common names for this oil are pea-nut, ground-nut, and earth-nut oil. 
Its specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) is 919; solidifying-point, -25° C. 
(-|-27"5° F.). This oil is extracted from the seeds of the 
creeping plant Arachis hypogcea, a member of the order 
Leguminosse. The best-quality oils are obtained by cold pressure of the 
dried seeds; they are colourless, and possess a pleasant kidney-bean flavour. 
By further pressure of the moistened residues a yellow oil of inferior 
value is obtained, which is sometimes sold as butterine oil. In its chemical 
and physical characters arachis closely resembles olive oil, of which it 
frequently forms an adulterant. When present in only small amount its 
detection is a matter of considerable difficulty, depending upon the sepa- 
ration of arachidic acid, a fatty acid peculiar to this oil, and occurring 
to the extent of about 5 per cent. When arachis oil is used in large 


quantity in admixture with other oils its peculiar odour and flavour will 
enable it to be recognized. Arachis oil is largely produced in Holland 
and France, in which countries it is used as a substitute for olive oil, and 
also to a very large extent in the making of confectionery. 


Cotton-seed oil has a specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) of -922 to -930; 

solidifying point, 3° to 4° C. (37° to 39° F.). This oil is obtained from the 

, ^.. seeds of various species of Gossypium, belonp-ingf to the 
Cotton-seed Oil „ , m- , ■, • t t -A ... 

mallow order, now cultivated in India, Jligypt, America, &c. 

The seeds are hulled and then crushed, the mass being then placed in bags 
and submitted to hydraulic pressure, first in the cold and afterwards hot. 
The oil expressed from the seeds is dark red, almost black. On treating 
with caustic potash the upper layers become blue and afterwards violet, a 
characteristic reaction of cotton-seed oil. Just sufficient caustic is added to 
carry down these colouring matters in the soap formed, and the clear oil is 
then drawn off and washed. The refined oil is pale yellow^ in colour, possess- 
ing a bland taste and pleasant odour. Owing to the method of refining with 
alkalies, cotton-seed oil usually contains only about 1 per cent of free fatty 
acids. Cotton-seed oil is very suitable for edible purposes, but owing to 
popular prejudice its sale under its proper name has been very restricted, 
and it is generally marketed under some fancy designation, as table oil, 
sweet-nut oil, butter oil, &c. In addition to this it is frequently used to 
adulterate olive oil, and it enters largely into the manufacture of cooking 
fats, margarine, and compound lards. Commercial oils are known as 
SurriTner Oils and Winter Oils, the difference being that, from the winter 
oil some of the stearin has been removed, so that the oil will no longer 
solidify during cold weather. Such oil is said to be " demargarinated ". 
The by-product, or solid cotton stearin, is a yellow buttery fat, largely 
used in the manufacture of margarine, compound lard, 
vegetable butter, and cooking fats. Cotton stearin has a 
melting-point about 40° C. (104° F.). For baking and confectionery this 
cotton stearin forms an excellent butter substitute even when used alone, 
whilst the confectioner possessing a whisk or beating machine can com- 
pound his own substitutes, using cotton stearin as his base and blending 
in butter, lard, or other oil, according to the consistency he desires his 
fat to have. 

Cotton-seed oil may be detected by the following test. Dissolve 1 gm 
of silver nitrate in 100 c.c. of 95-per-cent alcohol; add 20 c.c. of ether 
and 1 drop of nitric acid. If 2 c.c. of this reagent is 
well shaken with 10 c.c. of the oil under examination 
and then placed in boiling water for ten minutes, a blackening due to 
reduced silver will prove the presence of cotton-seed oil (Becchi's test). 
This test cannot be relied upon as proof of the adulteration of butter 
or lard with cotton-seed oil, because it has been shown that, w^hen cows 


or hogs are fed upon cotton-seed cake, the butter or lard obtained from 
such animals yields the cotton-aeed test. 

Maize or Corn Oil 

Maize oil has specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) of '852; solidifying- 
point, 16°-14° C. (61°-57° F.). The germs of maize contain some 20 per 
cent of oil. In the process of starch and glucose manufacture . 

these germs are separated ; they are then submitted to hydraulic 
pressure, a yield of 15 per cent of oil being obtained. Maize oil is golden 
yellow in colour, possessing a pleasant odour and flavour like fresh grain, 
by which it may be identified. Maize oil contains a large amount of 
unsaponifiable matter, chiefly consisting of lecithin, a phosphorized fatty 
substance. The fatty acids present are palmitic, stearic, and arachidic. 
The supply of this oil comes chiefly from the United States, where it is 
largely used in the manufacture of margarine and compound lard. It 
is also used as an adulterant of olive oil. 

Sesame Oil 

This oil is also called gingili oil and teel oil. Specific gravity at 15° C. 
(59° F.) -923; solidifying-point, -5° C. ( + 23° F.). It is obtained from 
the seeds of Sesamum orientate and S. indicum. The cold-pressure oil is 
pale jT^ellow and free from odour, with a pleasant taste. The fatty acids 
are chiefly oleic and linoleic. In edible value it is equal to olive oil, of 
which it is a probable adulterant. Sesame oil when present in even small 
quantity can be recognized by the following test. Dissolve Baudoui * 
•1 gm. of cane sugar in 10 c.c. of hydrochloric acid of 1'2 Test for 
specific gravity. To this add 20 c.c. of the oil to be tested; Sesame Oil. 
shake thoroughly and allow to stand. If sesame oil is present the watery 
layer will become crimson (Baudouin's test). The test is capable of in- 
dicating 2 per cent of sesame oil. 

Eape or Colza Oil 

Rape or colza oil has a specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) of •914-'9l7; 
solidifying-point, -4° to -6° C. (-^25 to 21° F.) It is obtained from the 
seeds of a variety of Brassica campestris, the wild form of the 
turnip plant. The seeds of several allied plants are also used, 
all these oils being known as rape oil in this country. The crude oil is 
purified by treatment with sulphuric acid, and afterwards with alkali. 
The refined oil is dark yellow in colour, with a harsh unpleasant taste. 
The cold-drawn oil is used as food in India, and it has been used for 
baking purposes in this country when lard and other fats reach a very 
high price. 

CocoANUT Oil 

The specific gravity of cocoanut oil at 15° C. (59° F.) is '925; solidifying- 
point, 205° C. (69° F.). It is obtained from the fruit of Cocos nucifera, 


there being three qualities. The best, or Cochin, is gi-own on the Malabar 
coast. Ceylon is also a good quality, and both these varieties 
are prepared where cultivated. Copra is the common grade 
prepared in Europe from dried imported kernels. The oil is extracted by 
pressure and refined by heating with water. It is a soft, white, butter- 
like solid at ordinary temperatures. The fresh oil has an agreeable odour 
and flavour, recalling its origin, but it speedily becomes rancid. The fatty 
acids present are palmitic, oleic, myristic, and lauric. For edible purposes 
only selected nuts are employed. The free acids and odour are removed 
by means of alcohol and charcoal or magnesia, the resulting fat being 
almost neutral, and possessing only the faintest odour. Most of the well- 
known brands of vegetable butter consist simply of this cocoa-nut oil, and 
under various names it is extensively used in confectionery and biscuit- 
Butter Pro- making. Recently it has acquired a new interest, as it is 
parties of being used in the adulteration of butter. The ordinary 

ocoanut i . Qj^gj^jg^l constants of this oil are closer to those of butter 
than those of any other fat, and consequently the detection of small 
quantities of it when used as an adulterant is only possible by careful 
comparison of all the constants of a suspected sample with those of a 
genuine butter. 

Palm-nut Oil 

The specific gravity of palm-nut oil at 99° C. (210° F.) is -873; melting- 
point, 23° to 28° C. (73° to 82° F.). This oil is obtained from the kernels 
of the fruit of Elwis guineensis and E. melanococca after the 
fleshy part has been removed. The method is similar to that 
used for obtaining cocoa-nut oil. Palm-nut oil is a white, neutral, pleasant- 
smelling solid having an agreeable nutty taste. Palm - nut oil usually 
contains much free fatty acid, usually 3 to 13 per cent, reckoned as 
oleic acid. The chief constituent of palm - nut oil is lauric acid. The 
chief use of palm -nut oil is as a constituent of vegetable butters. For 
this purpose its melting-point is too low, and therefore the more liquid 
oil is separated from the stearins by hydraulic pressure. The solid stearins 
resulting from this process are used in niaking vegetable butters, adulter- 
ating genuine butter, and also for making substitutes for cocoa butter for 
use in chocolates. 

Palm Oil 

Palm oil has a specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) of '92; solidifying- 
point, 38° C. (100* F.). This oil is obtained from the fleshy part of the 
palm-nut. It varies greatly in colour from orange yellow to 
dirty red, and possesses a pleasant violet-like odour. The oil is 
used as food by European and native alike in Africa, but owing chiefly 
to bad methods of extraction it is so rancid upon arrival in Europe that 
it is quite unfit for food. It is common for this oil to contain 20 to 50 
per cent free acids. Its chief use, therefore, is for soap-making. 





Nearly all the natural substances employed as sweetening agents belong 
to the group of chemical compounds called the carbohydrates, of which 
they constitute the largest division under the name of sugars. 

The sugars are found in almost every plant structure, fruits, stems, 
leaves, and trunks of trees, the most commonly occurring 
sugars being cane sugar and fruit sugar. The following 
table is an abstract of a large one given by Buignet showing the average 
quantities of sugar occurring in fruits: — 

Sucroses or 

Reducing Sugar or 


(Glucose type). 

Pineapples ... 


English cherries 
Raspberries ... 



Grapes (hot-house) . . . 

6 04 











On account of their great solubility, and consequent ease of absorption 
into the system, the sugars form one of the most important groups of 
nutritive substances. The process of digesting starch involves its con- 
version into sugars, so that the transformation of starchy and other carbo- 
hydrates into sugars, which takes place in the plant tissues during the 
period of ripening, is a true predigestion of great utility to the animal 

Of the large number of sugars entering into the various food-stufFs 
only a few are of practical and commercial importance, and Sucroses and 
they are conveniently classified by division into two groups: — Glucoses. 

1. The sucroses or disaccharides, the formula for which is generally 
written CigHgaOji. The principal members of this group are cane sugar, 
beet sugar, maple sugar, palm sugar, malt sugar, milk sugar. 

2. The glucoses or monosaccharides, having the formula CqH.^2^q, the 
chief members of which are dextrose or grape sugar, levulose or fruit 
sugar, and invert sugar, a mixture of the two former sugars found naturally 
in honey. Glucose or starch sugar is another name commonly applied to 



The members of these two groups are intimately related, and invariably 

nu „^^ f, the addition of a molecule of water to the disaccharides 

Changes irom 

Cane Sugar brings about their dissociation into two molecules of a mono- 
to G ucose. saccharide in accordance with the following equation: — 



H,0 = 


This reaction may be brought about either by prolonged boiling with water 
in presence of air, or more rapidly by means of very dilute acids. It is 
naturally induced by certain plant and animal ferments. 

Cane and Beet Sugar 

Cane sugar or sucrose originally obtained its name from the fact that it 
was exclusively prepared from the sugar cane (SaccharuTn offLcinarurti). 
It is the most commonly occurring of the natural sugars, and by reason of 
its powerful sweetening properties is technically of greatest importance. 
In these days, when it is computed that in this country the annual con- 
sumption of sugar reaches 80 lb. per head, it is difficult to realize that what 
is now regarded as so essential an article of diet was a few centuries ago 
a most expensive luxury, the use of which was practically confined to 
medicine. One of the earliest official records of the use of sugar in this 
country is to be found in the Scottish Chamberlain's Records for the year 
1319, when its price was Is. 9|c?. per lb. 

The sugar of commerce is chiefly obtained from two sources, about two- 
thirds of the world's supply being yielded by the sugar beet, and one-third 
Commercial by the sugar cane. In this connection it must be understood 
Sugars. that, when properly refined, the sucroses, from whatever source 

they are obtained, are identical in all chemical characteristics, and it is 
only possible to differentiate them when, owing to imperfect refining, some 
impurities are left in them. 

The composition of sugar cane and the juice yielded by 
it is given as follows in Thorpe's Dictionary of Ap2)lied 
Chemistry: — 

Cane Sugar. 








/1 9-6 (crystallizable). 
\ -.3 (uncrystallizable). 




Albuminous matters 



Fatty and colouring \ 
matters ... ... J 


Soluble salts 



Insoluble salts 


I 0-25 





Alexander Grant Wylie, born at Crieff in 1845, served an 
apprenticeship to a baker in his native place. He soon migrated 
to London, and in 1870 started there on his own account. He is 
now a leading family baker, and has done much for trade organi- 
zation in the capital. In 1898 he was President of the London 
Master Bakers' Protection Society, and he is the prospective 
President for 1908 of the National Association of Master Bakers. 
In 1907 he was appointed a Governor of the Borough Polytechnic 
Institute, as representative of the National Association. He is a 
Councillor and Alderman of Islington. 

Adam Lawson Johnston, bom in Edinburgh in 185 1, the son 
of a baker, commenced business on his own account in Edinburgh 
in 1880. He afterwards went to South Shields, and ultimately to 
London in 1886, when he started his present successful business in 
Wimbledon. He is a Vice-President of the National Association, 
and has several times declined the Presidency for health reasons. 
He was for many years Chairman of the Association's Education 
Committee, and was the first practical baker to be appointed an 
examiner under the City and Guilds of London Institute. He is 
now Honorary Consulting Examiner. He was Chairman of the 
Exhibition Judges for several years, and was one of the chief 
founders of the National Bakery School. 

Charles H. Paul, born in London in 1853, started business 
in Finsbury after considerable experience as journeyman and as 
manager of Boland's at Chester. He has since been in business 
as a confectioner and caterer in several parts of Greater London, 
since 1902 at Ealing. He has been one of the Confectionery Judges 
at the Annual Exhibition from the first. He is a member of the 
National Association's Education Committee and an Examiner 
under the City and Guilds of London Institute. 

James D. Graham, born at Dunblane in 1854, served his 
apprenticeship as a baker in his native town, and afterwards went 
to London. He acquired an extensive experience there and started 
on his own account near Covent Garden, and afterwards at St. 
John's Wood. He is a Vice-President and a Trustee of the 
National Association, one of the Exhibition Judges, and an 
Examiner under the City and Guilds of London Institute. In 
1 900- 1 90 1 he was Chairman of the Master Bakers' Pension and 
Almshouse Society. 










The process of extracting sugar consists in crushing the canes, and the 
crude juice is collected and freed from organic acids and nitrogenous matter 
by heating and treatment with lime (defecation). The clarified juice is 
next concentrated by evaporation in vacuo, and the resulting syrups 
allowed to crystallize. About 87 to 91 per cent of raw, brown, or " mus- 
covado " sugar is thus obtained, which is separated from the mother syrups, 
consisting of uncrystallizable sugars, by drainage, or, in modern sugar 
works, by means of centrifugals. 

The crude syrup remaining is called molasses. It has a dark-brown or 
greenish-black colour. Formerly this residue found a market in London 
in lari^e quantity, and was known as black treacle. Its chief , , 


applications were in cookery and distilling. Modern methods 
of extracting the sugar have greatly reduced the quantity of this residue, 
however, and comparatively little of it now reaches the market. The spirit 
rum was formerly exclusively obtained from molasses. 

Before the advent of beet sugar, the operations of sugar-winning from: 
the cane were very crudely performed on the plantations, being practically 
confined to crushing the stems to expel the juice, and then concentrating the 
liquor in open pans. The pasty crystalline mass, which was of a blackish 
hue, was then packed into bags and despatched to the various European 

Foot sugar was the name given to this dark -brown to black pasty 
mass, which was frequently very dirty. It was imported in enormous- 
quantities at the great refining centres of London, Liverpool, 
Greenock, and Glasgow. With the installation of modern 
extracting plants at the plantations this supply has now nearly ceased. 
The syrups are worked more completel}'' into crystalline sugars, so that 
only better-grade muscovado sugars now leave the plantations, the im- 
purities being retained and used for manuring the land. Foot sugar 
found some applications in confectionery, chiefly in the production of rich 
wedding and other cakes. Its dark colour and large content of non- 
crystalline sugars were the characters for which it was chiefly prized. 

The raw sugars, brown or grocery sugars, now chiefly coming to market 
are the impurest forms of sugar now met with in commerce. They are all 
muscovados, diflfering from one another according to the 
degree of " curing " they have undergone. " Curing " is the 
technical term for the whitening or bleaching which results from a more 
perfect separation of the uncrystallizable syrup from the crystals. The 
earlier methods of curing simply consisted in packing the moist sugars into 
barrels having perforated bottoms upon which rushes had been spread. 
The syrup thus drained away, and was collected in tanks. Modern 
methods consist in whirling the sugars in centrifugal machines, so that the 
syrup is thrown oflT. 

Of the moist sugars now entering the market, the following may be 

noted: Barbados, usually dark-brown to reddish in colour; Demerara, of 

a golden colour and rich flavoiir, generally highly prized for domestic- 
Vol. I. 34 


purposes; Brazilian, a white sugar possessing a fine characteristic flavour, 

, . „ and liardly any residue of syrups; Cuban, dark-coloured, and 

Moist Sugars. „ .1,1/, mi • , 

irequently harsh flavour. ihese sugars are moist to the 

touch, and adhere in lumps owing to the relatively large quantity of 

syrup present. These raw sugars usually possess characteristic flavours 

in addition to sweetness, which are due to the presence of small amounts 

of non -saccharine bodies and aromatic substances. 

Beet sugar, prepared from the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), is produced 

chiefly in Germany, France, Belgium, and Holland. In Britain the attempt 

^ „ to introduce the industry has not yet been attended with 

Seet Sugar. " . 

success. The common forms of beetroot contain but little 

sugar (about 6 per cent), and the chief difficulties to be overcome in 

extracting from the roots consisted in the separation of much acrid matter 

from the product, and the very low percentage of recoverable sugar. 

Scientific culture, however, has succeeded in so improving certain strains of 

beetroot, that they now yield 12 to 18 per cent of recoverable sugar, whilst 

the acrid substances are present in greatly reduced amount. The method 

of extraction consists in slicing or rasping the roots, and treating with 

water. The liquors obtained are defecated and clarified, and then evaporated 

in vacuo by methods similar in principle to those used in the case of cane 

sugar, but adapted to the special requirements of the beet. 

The raw sugars, whether obtained from sugar cane or beetroot, are 

generally refined in special factories devoted entirely to that work. The 

^ . process of refining simply consists in dissolving the raw 
Sugar-refining. . o 1 •/ o ^ 

sugars in water, filtering and clarifying by means of special 

reagents, and decolorizing by means of animal charcoal. The use of 
blood albumin for this purpose is now almost entirely abandoned. The 
colourless liquids are then evaporated in vacuo until of sufficient density 
to crystallize. The operation of making the different sizes of crystals is 
performed in the vacuum pan, the large crystals being the result of 
large and heavy charges of syrup at long intervals, so that the crystals 
can grow during boiling. Fine crystals, on the other hand, result from 
frequent and light charges. The preparation of Demeraras involves the 
addition of small quantities of sulphuric acid to the charge in the pan 
just before the "massecuite" is grained and ready to run out. This re- 
sults in a small quantity of the sugar being converted into a slightly 
caramelized form, thus imparting the fine golden yellow tint so much 
sought after in sugars of this class. This blooming is also assisted very 
frequently by the addition of small amounts of chloride of tin, but usually 
this is only done in inferior sugars. The finest Demeraras owe their 
brilliancy to care in clarification and defecation. 

Very frequently in recent years it has been found that so-called 
Demeraras are ordinary colourless sugar stained with aniline dyes. They 
Rough Test for are really beet sugars which have been put forward as 
Yellow Crystals, substitutes for genuine Demeraras. They are usually sold 
now under the name of Yellow Crystals. Such sugars may be detected 


by examining with a pocket lens, when the crystals will be seen to be un- 
equally coloured. Dilute acid will often turn such sugars pink or red, whilst 
absolute alcohol will abstract the dye and leave the sugar colourless. 

Loaf and cube sugar, with their derivatives, castor, granulated, and 
icing sugars, are the purest food materials found in commerce, consisting 
as they do of 99-8 per cent pure sucrose. The refining of L^^f and 
these sugars is precisely similar to that mentioned already, Cube Sugars, 
but no acid is added on evaporation. Loaves are made by running the 
syrup in the condition of " niassecuite " into iron frames of conical shape, 
having a hole in the tip for syrup to drain away. When the first charge 
has cooled and drained, fresh quantities of syrup are poured on and 
allowed to percolate through the mass until a solid block is obtained, by 
which means the colour becomes whiter and the loaf more solid and 
dense. When sufiiciently solid the loaves are removed from the moulds 
and placed in hot rooms to dry. Sugar candy is made by slowly crys- 
tallizing purified sugar upon lengths of string suspended in the concen- 
trated syrup. By this means large bunches of crystals are obtained. It 
is made in both white and yellow form. Cube sugar was originally 
obtained from the sugar loaf by cutting it with a pair of scissors or 
nippers. It is now, however, made at the refineries by various ingenious 
machines which mould the cubes upon the surface of a cylinder. Other 
methods consist in crystallizing the sugar in flat slabs, and cutting with a 
series of saw blades, or sheets of cutters arranged to work in a machine. 

Granulated is fast becoming one of the most popular types of sugar in 
commerce. It is made by boiling the syrup to the " massecuite " stage, until 
it has a sharp grain. The syrup is run out; the sugar is 
then freed from syrup in the centrifugal, and afterwards 
washed to clean the crystals. The wet crystals are then fed into a granu- 
lator, w^hich generally consists of a long revolving cylinder. The crystals 
pass through this cylinder and are subjected to heat, so that they become 
dried. The dry crystals then pass into an elevator, and are conveyed into 
a dressing machine which sorts the crystals into the various grades accord- 
ing to size. The largest of these crystals are called coffee crystals, the 
medium-sized ones are the ordinary granulated, and the smallest are 
castor sugars. Icing sugar is prepared by grinding the cube, granulated, 
or waste pieces from the manufacture of these varieties in disintegrators, 
and passing the product through dressing reels. Several different grades 
are thus obtained, which are used chiefly in biscuit manufacture, confec- 
tionery, and pharmacy. 

Pieces is a soft sugar having little or no grain, usually obtained from 
beet -sugar refining. The syrups from which first and second crystals 
have been obtained are boiled to a jelly, and allowed to stand 
two or three days in order to crystallize. The mass is then 
centrifugalized to separate the remaining syrup, and the crude sugar ob- 
tained is known as First Pieces. The syrup residues are again treated in 
a similar manner, when they yield an inferior grade called Second Pieces. 


Pieces usually have an unpleasant odour, and a slightly acrid flavour due to 
the large amounts of saline impurity in them. Their chief use is in biscuit 
and confectionery manufacture. 

The best white sugars are usually dressed with a little ultramarine blue 
in order to destroy any faint trace of yellowness. In order to test a white 
Test for Ultra- sugar for ultramarine, dissolve several ounces of the sugar 
marine Colouring. [^ water, and allow to stand until the colouring matter 
has settled; decant off the liquid, and wash the residue with water. On 
treating the residue with hydrochloric acid the blue colour is destroyed if 
it is ultramarine. 

As in crude sugar-making, so also in refining, a residue of syrup is 

obtained which does not crystallize, owing partly to impurities and saline 

matters, and partly to the presence of non-crvstalline sup-ars 
Golden Syrup. . , ^i l ■ i. crT 

As, however, tliese syrups may contain as much as 50 per 

cent sucrose, they undoubtedly form valuable sweetening agents. By 
means of certain complex processes much of this sugar could be recovered, 
but in the case of cane-sugar syrups this practice is seldom resorted to, the 
syrup being sold under the name of golden syrup, for which there is a 
considerable demand. The syrups obtained from beet-sugar refining, how- 
ever, are unfit for human consumption by reason of their nauseous flavour, 
which is due to the large amount of saline impurities they contain. Such 
syrups are now largely utilized in preparing certain well-known cattle 
foods. Golden syrup contains much invert sugar as a result of the fre- 
quent boilings to which the sucrose has been subjected. In addition to 
this, however, some manufacturers have adopted the practice of adding a 
small proportion of glucose, with the object, it is said, of preventing grain- 
ing, i.e. crystallization of the syrup. Such syrups should be sold with a 
declaration of the addition upon them, for proceedings have several times 
been taken under the Food and Drugs Act for passing such mixtures as 
pure golden syrup. 

Good cane sugar should be perfectly soluble in half its weight of cold 
water, and the solution should be free from dirt and other impurities which 
would yield a deposit on standing. This forms a rough- 
and-ready test for buying sugars. On boiling a solution 
of sugar at atmospheric pressure water is given off"; but, unlike most 
liquids, the temperature does not remain constant until all the water is 
driven ofl! As boiling proceeds, the temperature slowly rises and the mass 
becomes faintly acid, and invert sugar is gradually formed, so that the 
power of crystallizing on cooling again is lost entirely. 

When heated to 160° C. (320° F.) crystallized sugar melts, and, on 
cooling again, yields a golden-yellow solid of a glassy nature called barley 
sugar. If the heating is carried above 160° C, the sugar 
undergoes considerable chemical modification and parts with 
some of its water of constitution, being converted into non-saccharine 
bodies at 190° C. (374° F.). It gradually darkens, and forms the body 
known as caramel. This caramel is marketed in the form of a dark-brown 


viscous liquid, or as a vitreous solid. Its solution in water is used for 
colouring rum, brandy, whisky, vinegar, fruit essences, and many articles 
of confectionery and cookery. During the boiling of a watery solution of 
sugar, products having different physical properties are obtained according 
to the degree of temperature to which the boiling is allowed to proceed. 
The sugar-boiler recognizes some nine or ten of these stages between the 
temperatures of 220° F. and 350° F. These stages he usually recognizes 
by certain practical tests, and but seldom boils by the thermometer. The 
various products are utilized in the making of soft and hard fondants and 
ball or stick toffees.^ 

Cane sugar has no reducing action upon Fehling's solution or am- 
moniacal silver nitrate solution. Dilute acids convert cane sugar into 
invert sugar, a mixture of dextrose and levulose, and then the solution 
reduces Fehling's solution and ammoniacal silver nitrate. Cane sugar 
possesses the power of rotating the plane of polarized light, and this is 
made use of in the testing of sugar for purity. Its specific optical rotation 
is [a]d + 66*5° for 10-per-cent solutions. This specific rotatory power is 
defined as the angle through which a ray of polarized light is rotated when 
it traverses a column 1000 mm. in length of a solution containing 10 gm. 
of the substance in 100 c.c. Since the rotation varies directly with the 
concentration of the solution it is possible, when the substance and its 
specific rotation are known, to ascertain the percentage in any solution by 
means of the polarimeter. When treated with alkalies, sugar becomes of a 
dark-brown colour on heating, and is gradually decomposed. This brown- 
ing can be seen in scones and other goods made with excess of soda. 

The strength of cane sugar solutions or syrups may be determined with 
fair accuracy by means of the specific gravity of the solution. Hydro- 
meters are made expressly for gauging sugar solutions, and Test for Sugar 
in those of Balling and Brix the percentage of sugar is Strength, 
marked in degrees upon the stem for every increase in specific gravity. 
In the absence of these specially marked instruments an ordinary hydro- 
meter giving specific gravities may be used, or the specific gravity may 
be determined by means of the bottle or picnometer. It has been care- 
fully determined that the addition of 1 gm. of cane sugar to a solution of 
100 c.c. raises its specific gravity by 386, and this is approximately true 
throughout a long range. It follows, therefore, that by a reversal of 
reasoning we can find the weight of sugar in solution if its specific gravity 
is known. This is done by subtracting 1000 from the observed specific 
gravity x 1000, and dividing the remainder by 3-86. This gives the 
weight of sugar present in a given volume of the solution. For example, 
suppose the observed gravity is 1050, then 

w-w f VA 1050-1000 .,-„^ . ,^^ 

Weight of solids = ^^ = 12-95 gm. in 100 c.c. 

This method may also be applied to all the other sugars in solution. 

^ See Chapters on Sugar Boilmg m a later volume. 




Proximate Com- The following table of analyses by many authorities 

position of Sugars, shows the average composition of the various types of 
sugar: — 




or Mono- 


Non- sugars. 




Raw Cane Sugars — 

West India 






Dominica ... 






Jamaica ... 






Porto Rico 






Trinidad ... 






Surinam ... 












Benares ... 






Jaggery ... 






Manilla ... 






Eaw Beet Sugars — 

Average ... 






Beet, firsts 






Beet, seconds 






Refined Sugars — 

Tate's crystals 






French pulverized 






Duncan's granulated 






Martineau's tablets 






Friezel's crystals ... 






White coffee crystals 






Beet loaf-sugar ... 






Yellow sugar, XC 






Yellow sugar 








Other Disaccharide Sugars 

Sorghum (Andropogon Sorghum, var. saccharatus) is a grass which 
grows largely in America, some varieties containing as much as 8 per cent 
of sugar. Though at present it is not of much account in the 
production of sugar, yet during recent years its cultivation has 
greatly extended under the assistance of the U.S. Board of Agriculture. 



The chief difficulty in the manufacture of sugar from it arises from the 
presence of starch in the grass. 

Maple Sugar, prepared from the sugar maple {Acer saccharinum), a 
tree of eastern North America, is a special variety of sucrose very highly 
prized on account of its peculiar flavour. Its production is 
almost exclusively confined to Canada and one or two states 
in U.S.A. The maples are tapped, and the juice which is collected is boiled 
down in open pans to a proper consistency. The scum is removed very 
carefully, since its retention would be likely to give rise to fermentation 
in the finished sugar. It is estimated that each tree yields an average of 
4 lb. of sugar per annum. Maple sugai- is never refined, since its chief 
value depends upon the impurities, its flavour being due to small quantities 
of ethereal substances. Maple sugar is slightly laxative in its eflfects. The 
following analyses are given by Leach: — 

Sucrose ... 71-80 to 86-89 

Glucose ... ... ... ... ... ... traces „ 12*19 

Water 6-77 „ 11-57 

Ash 0-31 „ 1-50 . 

Maple sugar is frequently adulterated with molasses or brown cane sugars, 
and inferior maple sugars are fortified with syrup or commercial glucose. 
These adulterants are usually capable of detection by the flavour they 

Maltose or Malt Sugar (C12H2.2O11) seldom comes into market in the 
pure state. It is, however, the principal sugar occurring in malt extracts, 
and is produced in all eases where diastase acts upon starch. 
It also occurs in glucose syrup, since the action of dilute acids 
on starch results in its formation, together with other bodies. The formula 
representing its production by the action of malt diastase upon starch is 
given in the following equation: — 

SCi^H^oO.o + 4H2O = 4C,2H2Ai + 2C,H,A 

starch. Water. Maltose. Dextrin. 

This change takes place under the best conditions at 60°-65° C. (140°-149° F.). 
The sugar may be separated from the other products of the reaction by 
treatment of the solution with strong alcohol, which precipitates the 
dextrin, and the sugar can be crystallized by evaporation of the solvent. 
Maltose is less sweet than cane sugar. It is also less soluble both in water 
and alcohol. It rotates the plane of polarized light to the right, its specific 
rotatory activity being [a] d = +139°. Maltose crystallizes in tiny needles 
or warty masses with one molecule of water, which is expelled at 100° C. 
(212° F.), the resulting sugar being then extremely hygroscopic. Dilute 
acids and certain ferments convert maltose into dextrose. Yeast does not 
directly ferment maltose, but it secretes a ferment which quickly converts 
it into glucose, and it then becomes fermentable. Maltose reduces Fehling's 


Lactose, Milk Sugar (C^2^22^n)> ^^ ^he sugar present in milk. Prac- 
tically the whole available supply is prepared from cows' milk by sepa- 
rating; the cream and precipitatingr the casein with rennet. 
Milk Sugar. . r x- » 

The whey is then evaporated and the lactose crystallizes in 
hard, semi-transparent prisms containing one molecule of water. By treat- 
ment with animal charcoal and recrystallization the sugar is finally obtained 
perfectly pure. The polarizing power of lactose is [a]a = 4-52"5''. On 
heating lactose to 130° C. (266° F.) it gives up its water of crystallization, 
and at 180° C. (356° F.) it becomes converted into lactose caramel. As 
previously mentioned, lactose is not fermentable by yeast under ordinary 
circumstances, but in contact with decomposing proteins it undergoes 
splitting, and then fermentation results, with production of alcohol and 
lactic acid.^ Certain yeasts appear to be capable of carrying out this trans- 
formation of lactose, and these occur in the fermented beverages made from 
milk in Russia, &c., e.g. koumiss and kephir. When boiled with dilute acid 
lactose is converted into a monosaccharide and a disaccharide, viz. dextrose 
and galactose. Lactose reduces Fehling's solution and ammoniacal silver 
nitrate without previous inversion. Lactose is not quite so sweet as maltose, 
producing a somewhat gritty sensation in the mouth. 

Glucose and Levulose 

Glucose, Dextrose, or Starch Sugar (CgHjgOe), is the chief member of 
the monosaccharides occurring in commerce. It never comes into the 
market in a pure state, being always associated with dextrin, 
which is produced at the same time. Starch is converted by 
the action of dilute acids into dextrose, maltose, and dextrin; the resulting 
liquors are treated with chalk to neutralize the acid, filtered and evaporated 
to a thick syrup, or concentrated so that on cooling the mass solidifies. 
Dextrose is the chief sugar present in ripe grapes. It crystallizes in warty 
masses, containing one molecule of water. Dextrose melts at 146° C. 
(295° F.), and at 170° C. (338° F.) loses water, and is converted into 
glucosan, CgHioOr,, and at higher temperatures into caramel. The specific 
rotation of dextrose is [a]d = -|-52"7°. Alkalies turn dextrose dark 
brown in colour, and prolonged treatment with acids converts it into non- 
saccharine substances. Dextrose is not very sweet to the taste. It enters 
readily into fermentation with yeast, and reduces Fehling's solution and 
ammoniacal silver nitrate solutions. 

Glucose is principally made from cheap starchy materials, e.g. maize in 
America, and potatoes in France and Germany. It occurs in two forms, 
liquid and solid. Liquid glucose is a colourless syrup, containing from 12 
to 14 per cent of moisture. Solid glucose generally occurs in large cheesy 
lumps or chips having a pearly lustre. The principal impurity which 
glucose is liable to contain is arsenic, which may be derived from the acid 

' This condition never arises practically in bread fermentation. 



used for converting the starch, 
composition of these products: 

The following analyses show the variable 

Liquid Glucose. 

Solid Glucose. 


29-8 to 45-3 ... 

00 to 9-1 


4-6 „ 19-3 ... 

... 0-0 „ 1-8 

Dextrose . . . 

34-3 „ 36-5 ... 

... 720 „ 99-4 


0-3 „ 0-5 ... 

... 0-3 „ 0-75 


14-2 „ 17-2 ... 

... 0-6 „ 17-5 


Glucose, when care is taken in manufacture to ensure the absence of 
arsenic, is a perfectly healthful and pleasant product, enabling the con- 
fectioner to obtain results which cannot readily be otherwise produced. 
Its much lower sweetening properties than cane sugar also enable it to 
be used in relatively large amount without producing sickliness. Glucose 
is the principal material used in the production of caramel. 

Levulose is the sugar occurring in flowers and in some fruits. It is 
also produced in equal quantity with dextrose upon inverting cane sugar 
by acids or ferments. It is difficultly crystallizable, and usually 
occurs in commerce in the form of a brown syrup. It is probably 
quite as sweet as cane sugar. It is chiefly remarkable in polarizing in the 
opposite direction to all the other sugars, and hence its name of left-handed 
sugar. Its rotatory power is [a]d = — 98'8°. Levulose reduces Fehling's 
solution and also ammoniacal silver nitrate. 

Honey consists of about equal parts of dextrose and levulose. It is 
obtained chiefly by bees from the nectaries of various flowers. During 
its stay in the body of the bee the sucrose, which is the Composition 
chief sugar abstracted, becomes inverted into dextrose and of Honey, 
levulose. The flavour of honey varies greatly, according to its source. 
In addition to sugars, honey contains small amounts of mineral matter, 
pollen, wax, and certain acids, chiefly formic acid. The following analyses 
of pure and adulterated honeys show the general composition of these 
products: — 

Pure Honey. 

Honey adulterated 
with Cane Sugar. 

Honey adulterated 
with Glucose. 


Invert sugar (e.g. dextrose) 
and levulose) ... . . . ) 



0-5 to 7-6 

60-3 „ 78-8 

03 „ 0-5 
120 „ 330 

431 to 170 

42-4 „ 67-2 

- „ 0-06 
42-4 „ 15-5 

8-8 to 0-0 

461 „ 49-8 

003 „ — 
151 „ 23-7 

Honey is often grossly adulterated with glucose or cane-sugar syrups, and 
though such mixtures are quite harmless, and probably quite as nutritive as 
pure honey, they should not be sold at the price of genuine honey, because 
they are so much more cheaply produced. 




Other Sweetening Substances 

Glycerin, 03115(011)3, is perhaps the only natural sweetening agent 
which is not a sugar or even a carbohydrate. It is in reality an alcohol 
belonging to the fatty hydrocarbons. It exists naturally in large 
quantity in all fats, where it is combined with various acids, 
forming ethereal salts (see Ohap. XLII, p. 247). Pure glycerin is obtained 
from fats by hydrolysing them with steam under pressure. As ordinarily 
obtained it is a colourless thick syrup, of specific gravity 126, and looking 
very like glucose syrup. It boils at 290° 0. (554° F.), but usually de- 
composes owing to the presence of impurities. Glycerin has great affinity 
for water, which it rapidly absorbs from the air. It has a distinctly 
sweet taste, but produces a slightly rough, drying feeling in the mouth. 
On account of its hygroscopic properties glycerin is frequently used in 
bread and cake making in order to assist the moist-keeping qualities of 
the products. It is also much used in diabetic cookery as a sweetening 
agent, where it can be safely used instead of sugar. Glycerin is some- 
what liable to be contaminated with lead and arsenic, impurities which 
are derived from the reagents and vessels employed in its manufacture. 
The most highly refined glycerins, as prepared for medicinal purposes, 
are usually perfectly free from these poisons, and may be safely employed 
in the preparation of foods. 

During recent years certain purely artificial products have been dis- 
covered which possess sweetening properties far in excess of any sugar 
Artificial Sweetening hitherto known. These bodies, which are obtained 
Substances. from coal-tar products, find an application in the pre- 

paration of foods for diabetic and gouty patients, and are also used to 
a large extent in the manufacture of mineral waters and some preserves. 
These substances have no food value whatever, but from their powerful 
nature they can be used in very minute quantity and still impart a 
considerable sensation of sweetness to the articles they are blended into. 
Their use is likely to be strongly objected to by health authorities, except 
in certain well-defined cases. 

Saccharin or Benzoyl Sulphimide (CgH^CO . SOgNH) is the best known 
of these sweeteners. It is a white powder having a melting point of 
224° 0. (435° F.). It is soluble in about 230 parts of cold water. 
In sweetening power it is 300 to 500 times as strong as cane 
sugar, and the addition of 1 part saccharin per 1000 parts of commercial 
glucose renders this syrup as sweet as cane sugar. Saccharin is pre- 
pared from the hydrocarbon toluene by treatment with concentrated 
sulphuric acid. The sulphonic acids thus formed are next converted into 
chlorides, one of which, the ortho salt, upon interaction with ammonia, 
yields the imide. A sodium salt of saccharin has been put upon the 
market. It is more soluble in water than the pure saccharin, and at 
the same time possesses about equal sweetening properties. Saccharin is 
largely administered in the form of tablets. 

EGGS 275 

In addition to its sweet taste saccharin possesses positive antiseptic pro- 
perties, and consequently may be considered as a preservative. It certainly 
has a retarding action upon the digestion by virtue of these properties. 

Accordine: to Squibb, saccharin has anti-ferment action equal . . 

1 • • 1 T 1 1 1 1 .• 11 Action of 

in intensity to boric acid. It should therefore never be used Saccharin on 

in infant or invalid preparations without disclosure of the Enzymes 

fact. When saccharin is fused with an alkali and potassium 

nitrate, the sulphur in it is oxidized to sulphuric acid. Upon dissolving 

the mass in water and adding barium chloride, the presence of the sulphuric 

acid becomes apparent. In this way saccharin may be detected, and, if 

necessary, quantitatively determined. 

Diilcin, Siicrol, or Paraphenetol Carbamide (C2H5O.C6H4.NH.CO.NH2), 
is a white powder sparingly soluble in cold water. It is soluble in 800 parts 
cold and 50 parts boiling water, whilst 25 parts of 95-per-cent 
alcohol also dissolve it. It is about 400 times sweeter than cane 
sugar. It melts at 173° C. (343° F.), and decomposes when strongly heated. 

Glucin is a light-brown powder readily soluble in water. It decom- 
poses without melting at 250° C. (482° F.). It has 300 times the sweeten- 
ing power of cane sugar. If glucin is dissolved in dilute hydro- . 
chloric acid, and the cooled solution is treated with sodium nitrite 
solution, a few drops of alkaline 8 naphthol produces a red coloration 
which may be considered characteristic of glucin. These bodies, however, 
are used to a much smaller extent than saccharin. 



Eggs constitute one of the most important of the raw materials used 
in confectionery, entering as they do more or less largely into the great 
majority of the articles made, and in many cases being the indis- Eees as 
pensable ingredient without which certain goods cannot be made. Aerating 
The confectioner relies upon his eggs to perform two important &^"^s. 
functions. By reason of the property they possess of film formation, there- 
by occluding large amounts of air, they act as an excellent aerating agent 
which can be used in rich mixings where both yeast and chemicals are 
inadmissible. Their chemical composition is such that they greatly enrich 
all other materials witli which they are blended, the improvement effected 
not being limited merely to an increased food value, but extending to better 
appearance, colour, and flavour, qualities which the confectioner is com- 
pelled to regard as of paramount importance in the productions of his 

The eggs of many kinds of birds are used as food in different parts of 
the world, but by far the most widely employed in cookery are the common 


hen's egg, and to a much smaller extent the duck's egg, whilst goose and 
turkey eggs are rarely used except in domestic cookery. Generally speak- 
ing, it may be stated that the eggs of all birds are closely similar in 
chemical composition, though they differ markedly in weight and also in 
flavour. The hen's egg has been the most completely investigated at 
present, and will here be taken as typical of eggs in general. An egg 
Chemical Com- contains in primitive form all the necessary materials 
position of Eggs, requisite to form blood, bone, muscle, and indeed all the 
tissues of the young chick. It follows, therefore, that the chemical nature 
of the chief constituents must be nitrogenous in character, consisting of 
bodies called proteins by the chemist. In addition there must be a large 
supply of mineral matter for bone formation, and fats to supply heat. On 
the other hand, the carbohydrates, e.g. starch, sugars, &c., are not required, 
since such bodies act mainly as heat producers and require oxidation. As 
no active life is possible within the shell, this group of substances is hardly 
Proportions of represented at all. For the purpose of considering its prac- 
Parts of Eggs. t,ical value, an egg may be conveniently divided into three 
parts: (1) the envelope or shell; (2) the almost colourless slightly jelly-like 
albumin layer or white; (3) the globular deep-yellow coloured yolk. In 
hens' eggs these parts bear about the following proportions to each other: — 

Parts per 100. In One. 

Shell 10 5 gram. 

White 59 33 „ 

Yolk 31 18 „ 

Average hen eggs weigh 2 oz. (56 gm.), duck eggs 2| oz. (70 gm.), goose 
eggs 5 to 6 oz. (160 gm.), and turkey eggs 4 oz. (110 gm.) each. The best 
hen eggs are those which weigh about 8 to 10 to the pound. When smaller 
the whites are usually weak, and the loss due to excessive proportion of 
shell makes such eggs more expensive than the larger and higher-priced 

The shell of an egg consists chiefly of carbonates and phosphates of 
calcium and magnesium deposited upon a thin tough membrane which 
encloses the liquid portion. It is very porous, and consequently permits 
free passage of air and the various impurities suspended in it. In course 
of time this brings about evaporation of moisture and gradual shrinkage 
of the egg mass, and eventually results in setting up decomposition of 
the chemical compounds present. The various methods of preserving 
eggs, therefore, have for their object the closing of these pores in the 
shell, thus effectually preventing decomposition. 

The classical method for detecting stale eggs consists in holding the 
egg between the eye and a bright light. The egg is fresh if it appears 
To Detect perfectly clear and transparent, with only a faint indication 
Age of Eggs, of the air chamber at one end. If it is not fresh, a more or 
less cloudy appearance will be observed, and in extremely old eggs the 
whole mass is opaque. Another method by which it is stated the age of 



an egg can be approximately determined consists in placing the egg in 
a 10-per-cent solution of common salt. Should it sink and rest upon the 
bottom it may be regarded as perfectly fresh; if it is about three days 
old it will remain suspended in the liquid; but if it floats upon the surface 
it is at least five days old. This method is not applicable to eggs which 
have been preserved by methods which will be referred to shortly. The 
following mean composition of hens' eggs is given by Konig: — 






In the Dry Substance. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Whole egg ... 

















White of Egg. 

Although composed almost entirely of fats and proteins, it must not be 
concluded that the constitution of eggs is therefore simple. On the con- 
trary, it is of the highest complexity, the white being made up of many 
different proteins, and the yolk containing many complex combinations 
of fat with proteins, forming highly elaborated structures, many of which 
are as yet only partially understood. An egg must be regarded as a 
congeries of individual cells. 

Egg white, or the albuminous part of an egg, is the portion out of 
which the several tissues of the chick are formed. It is a transparent 
faintly yellow-coloured ropy fluid, having a weak alkaline 
reaction. The more jelly-like the white the better it is for 
confectioners' purposes. It consists physically of two parts, being essen- 
tially a thin fluid enclosed in a framework of firm fibrous material, which 
forms a cellular membrane throughout the mass. The fluid portion is 
really very liquid, but the presence of the membranous envelopes gives 
it a high viscosity. The membrane is insoluble in water and in dilute 
salt and acetic acid solutions. If whites of egg are thoroughly beaten 
up in water the albumin passes into solution, and the insoluble membrane 
can then be filtered off". The presence of this membrane in white of egg 
is of the greatest importance to the confectioner, since it provides the 
fibrous structure around which the viscous protein solution can form 
thin walls, thus converting the mass into millions of air-cells when the 
whites are beaten or whisked. Good whites can be readily beaten into 
a perfectly stiff" froth, but this cannot be accomplished if even small 
traces of yolk are included or if grease of any kind is present. Anything 
which tends to reduce or destroy the viscosity of the fluid, such as dilution 
or addition of oily substances, renders the production of Action of Fat 
this froth an impossibility, because under these conditions and Sugar 
the films stretching between the fibrous structure become °" ^^ whites, 
broken as fast as they are formed. Sugar has the opposite effect, aiding 


the formation to some extent, because, by forming a syrup with some of 
the water present, it increases the viscosity slightly, and thus contributes 
to the stability and permanency of the film when it has formed. 

Eggs which are technically known as " weak " owe their inferiority 
to a deficiency in the amount of the membranous portion of the whites. 
It may be overcome to a considerable extent by exposing the 
broken eggs in a dry airy place for a few hours before whisk- 
ing. By this means some of the water is evaporated from the fluid portion 
and its viscosity is increased, and, at the same time, the relative proportion 
of membrane to fluid is also slightly raised, so that the frothing can be 
better accomplished. The custom of adding small traces of acetic acid and 
cream of tartar also possibly slightly increases the power of frothing by 
converting some of the albumen into acid albumen. 

White of egg has a specific gravity of 1'045, and by evaporation at 
temperatures not exceeding 60° C. (140° F.) it yields from 12 to 13 per 
cent by weight of solid substance of a yellowish horny character. 
The salts present in white of egg are mainly sodium chloride and 
sodium carbonate, and it is this latter salt which imparts the alkaline 
reaction to whites. When heated with water to a little above 60° C. 
(140° F.) egg albumin gradually becomes cloudy, forming small flocks; 
if the temperature is increased to 72° C. (161° F.) it becomes quite in- 
soluble, forming a dense white, opaque, jelly-like solid, which cannot be 
dissolved again in water. It is soluble in dilute acetic acid or in solutions 
containing pepsin, but with alteration of its properties. Very dilute acids 
do not cause precipitation of egg albumin, but strong acids cause it to 

Yolk of egg is the stored nutriment designed to serve for the support of 
the young chick during the period of development within the shell; con- 
sequently it has a composition wholly diflerent from that 
of whites. It may be looked upon as the part corresponding 
to the endosperm in the cereals. Yolk contains a larger proportion of 
solids than whites, but the predominating constituent is fat. Egg yolk 
is a thick, yellow, opaque fluid of an oily nature. It is composed of a 
larger number of substances than whites, the chief constituents being the 
fats, olein, palmitin, and stearin, which are identical with the principal 
fats occurring in the animal body, and the proteins, nuclein and vitellin, 
with certain highly complex phosphorized fatty proteins, among which 
lecithin may be noted. The colouring matter is called lutein, and contains 
iron in an organic form. To this body the fine tinctorial property of eggs 
is due. 

The principal protein in yolk is vitellin, which is insoluble in water 
but soluble in saline solutions. It differs considerably from the proteins 
of whites. The coagulation of yolk by heat takes place at a higher 
temperature than that of whites. Yolks cannot be beaten into a stiff* 
froth like whites, though by whisking a certain amount of air can be 
incorporated. This is the result of the operation of several causes, among 

EGGS 279 

which may be noted the different character of the proteins, albumin being 
present in very small quantity, the absence of a fibrous structure around 
which cells can be formed, and the presence of relatively large quantities 
of fatty matter. 

The yolk, however, yields by far the most valued of the food con- 
stituents in eggs, namely, the fats and phosphorized compounds, whilst 
the rich colouring and flavouring properties render it indispensable to 
the confectioner. 

It has already been noted that the porous character of the shells is 
the cause of the speedy deterioration of eggs which are kept for any 
time after laying. When first laid an egg is coated with a natural pre- 
servative in the shape of a thin layer of mucilage, but this is speedily 
removed by handling or washing. The preservation of Methods of 
eggs has been a problem of great practical importance Preserving Eggs, 
for many years, and a large number of methods have been proposed to 
attain this end. The earlier processes simply consisted in packing the 
eggs in some loose absorbent material, such as bran, salt, charcoal powder, 
so as to fill up all spaces between the eggs and exclude air as far as 
possible. Thus treated, eggs keep much longer than would be the case 
if air had free access, but the method is not satisfactory for any long 
period. Other methods, employed with more or less success, involved 
the coating of the shell with some impervious material, such as butter, 
vaseline, gelatine, or varnish. Solutions of common salt and lime water 
yield very good results, the eggs being packed into jars or tubs and 
covered with the solution. In a series of tests made in France with a 
large variety of methods, it was found that the use of lime water was 
among the three best processes, there being no failures with it during the 
period of the test. 

Undoubtedly the best practical solution for egg preservation is sodium 
silicate or water glass. In 1893 Bourne took out a patent in France for 
the use of silicate of soda, the egg being dipped into the 
solution and then removed and allowed to dry. This is not 
a perfectly satisfactory method of applying the preservative, and although 
somewhat more cumbrous, and necessitating the use of large receptacles 
where any number of eggs are to be laid by, there can be no doubt 
that the permanent immersion of the eggs in a dilute solution of the 
reagent is by far the safest process. The eggs should be packed into 
stoneware jars in the unwashed condition; a solution of water glass of 
10 per cent strength (obtainable at any chemical dealer's or drysalter's) 
is then poured upon them, so as completely to cover them over. Thus 
treated, eggs may be preserved for six to eight months easily. The chief 
drawback of the process is that the shells become very brittle, but this is 
not of great importance to the confectioner. The danger of weakening the 
whites by transfusion of water through the shell is not nearly so great 
with water glass as with other liquid solutions. Cadet de Vaux pro- 
posed to plunge the eggs into boiling water momentarily, and thus form 



Dried Eggs. 

a thin skin of coagulated albumin on the interior wall of the shell. This 
would form an impervious coat and protect the rest of the egg. Various 
forms of preserved eggs are now placed upon the market, and there is 
really little difficulty attending their production. 

Desiccated eggs, both mixed or whites and yolks separated, are readily 
obtained by evaporation in the open air at low temperatures, 
if the material is first thoroughly broken up by beating. The 
temperature of evaporation should not exceed 45" C. (113° F.). Whites 
so dried yield a horny solid easily poM^dered. The powder, which is of a 
greyish tinge, keeps well for unlimited periods. It dissolves rather slowly 
in cold water when required for use. Yolks dry quite as easily, but owing 
to their fatty nature they cannot readily be reduced to fine powder. Dried 
yolk forms large yellow granules of a soft cheesy nature. Kept in a closed 
receptacle they acquire a faint odour, but do not go bad if properly dried. 
They may be kept two or three years. Recent improvements in drying 
eggs consist in Emulsifying the egg with water to break it up into a fine 
homogeneous state, the mass being treated usually with a small amount 
of sodium bicarbonate to facilitate resolution of the dried powder. The 
emulsion is then sprayed upon heated revolving cylinders, which cause 
the water to be quickly evaporated, and the dried egg forms a thin skin 
upon the surface of the drum, from which it is removed by means of a 
knife held with its edge against the face of the cylinder. This method 
is similar to that employed in drying milk. 

The following analyses of two samples of dried eggs obtained in 
America are given by Leach: — 

Composition of 
Dried Eggs. 


Proteins (N x 6-25) 
Protein by difference 



Sample A. Sample B. 

6-80 5-95 

45-20 48-15 

51-20 — 

38-50 40-56 

3-50 5-34 

These were undoubtedly genuine dried egg powders. An attempt was 
made a few years ago to put upon the market eggs preserved in syrup. 
Eggs preserved The eggs were homogenized so as to form a liquid, and 
in Syrup. glucose syrup added to form a preservative. The fluid 

was then packed in hermetically sealed tins, similar to those used for 
condensed milk. A sample of this product which came into the author's 
hands yielded the following analysis: — 

Per Cent. 
Water 35-29 


Proteids (N x 6-33) 










The mixture kept good for about two months when exposed to air, after 
which it slowly became mouldy. The large quantity of To Keep Eggs 
glucose is the chief objection to its use as a substitute for Left Over, 
fresh eggs in confectionery manufacture. The use of a definite quantity 
of sugar to mix with eggs left over on any day will keep them sound for 
use for several days, the sugar thus added to them being allowed for in the 
mixing in which they are ultimately used 



Many powders have been put forward from time to time for the pur- 
pose of substituting eggs. Some of these substances contain considerable 

amounts of nitrogenous matter, being prepared from gelatin, ^ ^ 

. Egc Powders, 
gum, blood albumin, or casein. They are generally sold in 

the trade under fancy names, and occur in the form of white or greyish 
powders. The so-called egg powders sold to the public usually bear no 
resemblance to eggs except in colour. They are mainly starch, with the 
addition of a chemical aerating agent, such as cream of tartar and sodium 
bicarbonate, coloured brilliantly with turmeric or some coal-tar dye. All 
the principal proprietary egg powders are of such composition, and it 
is needless to remark that they cannot properly fulfil the functions per- 
formed by eggs. Of the albuminous powders already referred to, it may 
be said that such substances will yield a very good froth when whipped 
up with small amounts of water. They cannot, however, be brought to the 
same degree of stiffness as white of eggs, and when articles made with them 
are brought into the oven they fail to expand, the air-cells tending to burst, 
or the whole mass may sink down again after having risen. The reasons 
for the failure of these substances must be sought partly in their chemical 
and partly in their physical nature, for whilst they all possess considerable 
viscosity^ none has the elasticity which egg albumin is found to have. 

Blood alhwmin is the substitute bearing the closest chemical resemblance 
to egg albumin. It is obtained from the watery serum of blood after the 
clot consisting of fibrin and corpuscles has been removed. The commercial 
commercial article is made in several qualities, the best refined Albumen, 
being of a yellowish colour; the dark-coloured albumins have been im- 
perfectly refined. It sh6uld be in thin layers or flakes, transparent, free 
from objectionable smell, and completely soluble in cold water when well 
stirred. It is liable to be adulterated with gum dextrin, sugar, casein, &c. 
Fish albumin is occasionally met with, but is easily recognizable by its 
odour. Blood albumin forms a good substitute for white of egg, but owing 
to the absence of fibrous membranes it does not yield so stiff and good a 

foam when whipped. 

VOL. I. 36 


Gelatin is obtained from hoofs, horns, bones, hides, &e., by boiling with 
water or steaming. The liquor is strained, and skimmed, and concentrated, 
and then allowed to gelatinize in thin sheets by cooling. Pure 
gelatin is a white glassy solid, devoid of taste or smell. When 
heated it softens but does not melt. Placed in cold water it swells greatly, 
absorbing much water; it does not, however, dissolve to any extent, but 
upon warming to 30° C. (86° F.) it is dissolved completely. Upon cooling, 
solutions of gelatin set to a firm jelly. It will be seen from these properties 
that gelatin bears no resemblance to true albumins, for it is insoluble in 
cold water; nor does it set and becon)e insoluble when heated to near the 
boiling-point of water. This great difference in properties renders gelatin 
<iuite unsuitable as a substitute for eggs in all goods requiring to be baked, 
though doubtless it is fairly efficient if required for preparing royal icing 
or ice cream. Meringues or macaroons made with gelatin cannot be ob- 
tained of any bulk, because the gelatin begins to soften and pass into solu- 
tion just when it is required to coagulate and form an insoluble film. On 
boiling gelatin for long periods, or by repeatedly raising the temperature 
of gelatin to the boiling-point of water, its power of setting is completely 
destroyed. The suitability of a gelatin for food purposes is readily tested 
by pouring boiling water upon it and allowing it to stand for a short time. 
If the gelatin is pure the solution will remain unaltered in colour, and no 
unpleasant odour will be noted. The solution should be perfectly trans- 
parent and tasteless. A yellow colour or offensive odour shows the material 
to be unfit for culinary purposes. Isinglass is a variety of gelatin obtained 
from the swimming-bladder of the sturgeon and other fishes. It is some- 
times adulterated with bone gelatin and other kinds of glue. On treating 
isinglass with hot water it swells to a whitish opal jelly and dissolves. 
On account of its greater solubility and inferior viscosity it is less 
suitable than gelatin as an aerating agent. 

Separated dried milk is the latest addition to the number of substitutes 
for eggs. It is a whitish flocculent powder, having a faint caseous odour. 
It is prepared from milk by separating the fats and then acidify- 
ing the solution with acetic acid. The precipitated casein is 
afterwards washed and dried. Casein solutions can be whipped, but do 
not yield a stiff or permanent froth. The froth possesses very little lifting 
power, though upon baking the casein films set to a horny insoluble 
condition. Casein is now used considerably in the manufacture of diabetic 
specialities. Bread and biscuits which are perfectly free from starch are 
made from it, and they are much more palatable than the gluten and bran 
products to which sufferers from this complaint were formerly confined. 

There does not appear to be any natural substance possessing quite the 
same physical properties as white of egg, though it is somewhat closely 
Separated I'esembled by wheat gluten, with its insoluble glutenin, forming 
Gluten. a framework upon which the slightly more soluble gliadin can 
form a film stretching between the fibrous net-work. In is this dual nature 
to which both materials owe their usefulness as aerators. Separated gluten 


now finds its way into the market in considerably larger quantity than 
formerly. It is generally obtained as a by-product from the manufacture 
of starch. Its chief present use is in the manufacture of diabetic bread and 
biscuits and other invalid food preparations, but it may at some future 
time become an egg substitute, since it certainly possesses aerating pro- 
perties perhaps excelling eggs themselves. 



In order to impart to his products those delicate flavours and odours 
upon which their palatability very largely depends, the confectioner lays 
under contribution a great variety of substances, almost all of which are 
derived from vegetable sources. The appreciation of flavour is an idio- 
syncrasy not alone of individuals, but applying equally to nations, and 
consequently it will be found that the most incongruous substances have, 
at one time or another, been valued for their flavouring properties. To 
attempt even an enumeration of all the substances which have served this 
purpose in the past, or which may be in use at the present day, would be of 
no utility. Our attention will therefore be confined to short notices of the 
characters and properties of the materials having chief commercial impor- 
tance, whilst special attention will be paid to those artificial substances 
which in some instances have almost displaced the natural products. 


The principal flavouring substances are roughly divided into three 
groups: — 1. Spices. 2. Aromatic seeds. 3. Essential oils and liqueurs. 
The spices are invariably used in the form of powder, classification of 
They comprise almost every vegetable structure: fruits. Flavouring Agents, 
flowers, buds, leaves, stems, barks, and roots. The reduction of many of 
these substances to a fine pulverulent form is a matter of considerable 
difficulty, necessitating heavy machinery, and they are consequently nearly 
always purchased from the merchant or spice-grinder in powder form. 

Owing to their strong odour and flavour, spices are comparatively 
easily adulterated with worthless material, the high cost of the spice 
furnishing a powerful incentive to unscrupulous traders. The Adulteration 
commonest form of adulteration consists in grinding along °^ Spices, 
with the spice quantities of husks or shells. Among those so used 
cocoa-nut, Brazil nut, almond shells, olive and date stones, sawdust of 
various trees may be noted. Other adulterants are bran of different 
cereals, cotton-seed shells, and the hulls of peas, beans, and vetches. 
Although the addition of some of these substances may not be actually 


harmful, yet since it considerably reduces the flavouring power of the 
spice, it is a distinct monetary loss to the confectioner. The pungency 
of most spices is due to essential oils which they contain, and another 
form of sophistication consists in exhausting the spice with alcohol, thus 
extracting a considerable portion of the essential oils, and afterwards 
grinding the residual marc. 

The recognition of foreign husks can be readily accomplished with 
the microscope, which is, indeed, indispensable for the examination of the 
powdered spices. It, however, necessitates considerable acquaintance with 
the microscopic appearance of the pure spices, if it is to be applied suc- 
cessfully. The detection of exhausted spice can usually only be accom- 
plished by chemical methods, the best test being, perhaps, determinations of 
the ether extracts. The volatile ether extract gives the amount of essential 
oil, and the non-volatile indicates the amount of fixed or fatty oil. 

Powdered spices require to be thoroughly blended into the flour before 
any other ingredients are added. 

Ginger is the root-stock of the herb Zingiber officinaLe, a native of India 
and China, but now cultivated in America, Africa, and Australia. The root 
is dug up when the plant is one year old. Whole ginger appears 
in commerce in two forms. The most highly prized is hlach ginger, 
which is the root simply boiled immediately after digging, to prevent ger- 
mination, and then dried. WJiite ginger is the scraped or decorticated 
root, sometimes bleached or covered with carbonate of lime to impart 
greater whiteness. Black ginger has a greyish wrinkled skin with a brown 
under layer. The interior of the root is of a yellowish colour, horny and 
compact in structure. The dark epidermis contains a large amount of 
pungent resin, and this explains why its removal results in depreciation of 
value in the root. White ginger is usually sent to market in slightly 
longer pieces than the black variety, but owing to removal of the cortex 
the diameter is less than that of black ginger, whilst the aromatic proper- 
ties are somewhat lower for the same reason. Ginger contains a greenish- 
yellow aromatic oil, the amount of which varies greatly in the different 
varieties of the root. Good ginger generally contains from 4 to 6 per cent. 

The commonest form of sophistication consists in exhausting the root 

with alcohol, by which the flavour and pungency are greatly reduced. 

Exhausted There appear to be two kinds of exhaustion practised, the first 

Ginger. being by means of strong alcohol for the purpose of making 

essence or tincture of ginger, the other being by means of dilute alcohol or 

water, in the manufacture of ginger ale, &c. Exhausted ginger is seldom 

substituted alone, but is usually mixed with some whole ginger so that 

detection of the fraud may be made as difficult as possible. Other rare 

adulterations, which can only be made in ground ginger, are, the addition of 

turmeric, cereal starches, and sawdust; these are recognizable microscopi- 

„. „ ^ cally. The starch of ginger is of a characteristic ellipsoidal 
Gmger Starch. '' . .i £ £ • / i • 

Shape, and very transparent; the presence oi foreign starch is 

therefore easy to recognize. 


Preserved ginger is made by boiling the root in water and then placing 
in syrup. 

True cinnamon is a native of Ceylon, and consists of the bark of a 
species of the laurel family, CinnamomuTn zeylanicum (see Plate, Spice 
Plants, No. 3). It has been highly prized as a spice from very 
ancient times. Crops are gathered in May and September, the 
two-year shoots being stripped of their bark. Cinnamon comes into the 
market in long cylinder-like rolls, having a pale yellow-brown colour, and 
slightly furrowed outer surfaces covered with dark spots. Cinnamon con- 
tains from '5 to 1 per cent of a valuable essential oil, the characteristic 
properties of which are due to cinnamic aldehyde. This constituent, like 
all the aldehydes, acts as a powerful food preservative. On account of 
the very small yield of oil and the scarcity of the true bark real cinnamon 
oil is exceedingly expensive, averaging about 7s. Qd. per fluid oz. The 
oil is very pungent, and the odour persists for very long periods. 

On account of its cost, cinnamon is largely substituted by cassia, the 
bark of CinnamiomuTn Cassia, indigenous in China and India. Cassia is 
comparatively abundant, and consequently much cheaper than true 
cinnamon. In appearance it is similar, but coarser in texture 
than true cinnamon. It is generally about four times as thick and of a 
darker colour. The wavy light-coloured lines on the exterior surface are 
also absent from cassia. The essential oil of cassia is similar to that 
occurring in cinnamon, but smaller in quantity and lacking in delicacy of 
flavour and aroma. Cassia buds are largely used in powdered cinnamon. 
They are the dried flowers of Chinese cassia. 

Cloves consist of the dried flower buds of an evergreen belonging to the 
order of myrtles, Eugenia caryophyllata (see Plate, Spice Plants, No. 1). 
The chief supplies come from Zanzibar and the West Indies. The buds 
are gathered as soon as they assume a reddish colour, and are 
spread out in the sun to dry, when the colour changes to a deep 
brown. Cloves possess a strong hot flavour, due to a volatile essential 
oil. The chief constituent of this oil is eugenol, an aldehyde which con- 
stitutes 70 per cent of the total oil. It is used as a basis for preparing 
artificial vanillin. The removal of the essential oil from the whole cloves 
is so easy that it is very frequently practised, and the exhausted cloves 
are afterwards sold, after being mixed in the proportion of about 10 to 
25 per cent with fresh ones. The only method by which this fraud can 
be detected with certainty is by a chemical determination of the quantity 
of oil, the mean quantity being about 16 to 18 per cent. The ground spice 
is often adulterated with clove stems, whilst pimento is sometimes entirely 
or in part substituted for cloves. Pimento is about one-fifth ^jy^ ^ t' 
the price of cloves, hence the inducement to use it. The struc- of Ground 
ture of this spice precludes its substitution for whole cloves, ^^°^^s- 
and when it is used for adulterating ground cloves the microscope will 
reveal the fraud. 

Pimento, allspice, or Jamaica pepper is the dried fruit of Pim£nto 


officinalis (see Plate, Spice Plants, No. 5), an evergreen belonging to the 
myrtles, growing largely in Jamaica and India. The berry is grey to 
reddish-brown in colour, of a globular shape, with wrinkled skin. 
On breaking the berry open it is found to consist of two cells, 
each containing a small kidney-shaped seed. The berries are gathered just 
before they are ripe, as, if they are allowed to mature further, some of the 
aroma is lost. The oil obtained from pimento contains eugenol, but the 
total amount of oil only reaches some 4 per cent. On account of its cheap- 
ness the form which adulteration takes usually is the addition of ground 
cocoa-nut shells, olive stones, or exhausted ginger. 

Nutmegs and 'niace are different portions of the fruit of the nutmeg tree, 
Myristica fragrans (see Plate, Spice Plants, No. 2), growing largely in 
the Malay Archipelago. As these spices are generally 
bought in their original condition adulteration is not 
easy or of frequent occurrence. The fruit of the nutmeg tree resembles 
a peach in size, and when ripe the fleshy portion splits into two, revealing 
the seed closely enveloped in a deep-red branching arillus. This aril is the 
Tnace, which, on removal and drying in the sun, becomes of a buff colour. 
The seed is also dried, and, after removal of the hard shining coat, it forms 
the nutmeg of commerce. Nutmegs are of a greyish-brown colour outside, 
due to the practice of liming to which they are submitted. The interior is 
grey in colour and oily. Nutmegs contain very large amounts of fixed oil, 
together with some volatile oil, the total fatty content amounting to about 
36 per cent of the seed. 

Mace is brittle and translucent, occurring in commerce in pieces about 
1| in. long. It contains about 22 to 37 per cent of oil. The commonest 
Adulteration form of adulteration of mace is the substitution of false or 
of Mace. Bombay mace. This variety is almost devoid of aroma and 
flavour, and its sale constitutes a distinct fraud. A test for distinguishing 
this adulterant from genuine mace consists in steeping strips of filter paper 
in an alcoholic solution of the suspected mace. On treating the paper with 
dilute sodium hydrate solution a red colour is produced if Bombay or wild 
mace is present. 

Aromatic Seeds 

Seeds are not used to any large extent in the whole, unground state, 
in bread or confectionery. The principal seed used in England is the 
caraway, but in Continental bakeries a wider variety of seeds are in use, 
chiefly for sprinkling over finished goods, as semmels, pretzels, &c. Among 
seeds in frequent use may be noted aniseed, coriander, caraway, fennel, 
poppy seed. 

Aniseed, the fruit of anise {Pimpinella Anisum), is a native of Egypt, 

but now cultivated in many parts of Europe. The fruit is ovoid in shape, 

tapering to a point at the top. It is of a greyish-brown colour, 

about I in. long, and usually has the stem attached at the base. 

Anise contains from 2 to 3 per cent of essential oil. The oil, either in the 


1. Clove. 

2. Nutmeg. 

3. Cinnamon. 

4. Black Pepper. 

5. Allspice or Pimento. 




form of alcoholic tincture or essential oil, is largely used in the preparation 
of cordials and in confectionery. 

Coriander is the fruit of Coriandmrri sativum, a native of Italy 
and the Mediterranean coast. In shape it is globular, about \ in. in dia- 
meter, and having ten fine ribs upon its exterior. The 
remains of the calyx teeth are usually to be found at the 
top. The colour is light brownish-yellow, sometimes in places passing to 
purple. The fruit is hollow, and crushes readily in the fingers. Coriander is 
used for flavouring gingerbread, honey cake, jellies, &c., whilst the alcoholic 
extract is used for improving the flavour of low-grade cocoas in chocolate 
manufacture. The flavour of coriander is mild and faintly sage-like. 

Caraways are by far the most widely used of all seeds in the whole 
state. In England they are still used to a very large extent in cake and 
biscuit manufacture, but the alcoholic extract is slowly dis- 
placing the seed in many districts. The caraway is the 
fruit of Carwni Carvi, a native of Europe. The small seed-like fruits are 
somewhat spindle-shaped, about \ in. long, and curved slightly. In colour 
they are nearly black, with sharp ribs of light brown running the length 
of the seed. The flavour is pungent and stimulating. The chief method of 
sophistication consists in exhausting the whole seeds by alcohol. 

Fennel is the fruit of a wild plant (Foeniculum vulgare). At one time 
this was known in America as " meetin' seed ", from the custom among the 
Puritans of taking sprigs of it to church to nibble during the 
service. Fennel closely resembles caraway in shape, but it is 
considerably longer and broader. In colour it is sage-green, with ribs of 
brown. In flavour fennel is quite unlike caraway, being closely similar to 
anise, though somewhat more pungent and penetrating. The seed, both 
whole and ground, is used in cookery. The essential oil also is used for 
flavouring confectionery. 



The flavouring substances most frequently used by bakers and con- 
fectioners are liquids, since fluids lend themselves most readily to thorough 
incorporation and accurate dosage. The absence of inert matters which 
tend to darken colour or mar the appearance of the goods places them far 
in front of spices. 

There are two principal kinds of these liquids, viz., essences and essential 
oils. Essences, including liqueurs,, waters, &c., are fluids in which alcohol is 
the chief constituent, forming the solvent for the flavouring matter. Essences 
Essential oils are the actual flavouring principles in the most and Oils, 
concentrated form. For most purposes the essential oils are to be preferred 


to the essences, waters, and other extracts, but it is not always possible to 
obtain them. For instance, the essential oils of strawberry, raspberry, and 
many other fruits are not known, and they are therefore represented by 
artificially prepared essences. 

Essential oils are obtained from practically every part of the plant ana- 
tomy. Fruit, flower, seed, leaf, bark, wood, root, each and all are laid under 
• 1 n-1 contribution. As a rule, however, the characteristic oil is 
located in greatest amount in one part only; for instance, 
lemon and orange oils in the rind of the fruit. In some cases the oil can 
be obtained from every part of the plant, as in the case of peppermint. 
Essential oils are nearly all limpid liquids. They are, when pure, probably 
all colourless; but as obtained in commerce they usually exhibit more or 
less colour due to small quantities of impurity extracted from the plant 
with the oil. Almost all are insoluble in water, and for this reason the 
addition of water to alcoholic extracts causes turbidity to occur. They are 
all very inflammable, and burn fiercely with much smoke. Most of these 
oils distil under atmospheric pressure, and all pass readily in a current of 
steam; they possess a hot burning taste and very pronounced odours, some 
pleasant, some otherwise. Essential oils do not feel greasy to the touch, 
but impart a rough, dry feeling to the skin; they have, indeed, no con- 
nection with the fatty oils whatever, and the name oil is a misnomer. It 
is, however, retained partly by custom, and used to indicate that the 
substances are the concentrated principles embodying the odour and 
flavour of the materials from which they are obtained. The essential oils 
undergo oxidation very readily, and they should consequently be stored in 
small bottles, kept as nearly full as possible, in a dark place. In specific 
gravity these oils vary greatly, some being lighter than water, and others 
heavier. Though insoluble in water, they are more or less soluble in almost 
all organic liquids — alcohol, ether, chloroform being the chief solvents. In 
chemical composition they vary enormously, many of them being complex 
mixtures of chemical compounds. Most of them can be classified into 
two groups, as (I) Volatile Oils or Hydrocarbons, and (II) Oxygenated 
Oils or Aldehydes and Ketones. The principal methods of winning 
these oils are by expression, distillation, and extraction by solvents. 
Descriptions of these methods will be given in dealing with the individual 

It is necessary to utter a word of warning in connection with the 
purchase of essential oils. Probably in no other trade has adulteration 
Adulteration of become such an art involving so little risk of detection as is 
Essential Oils, ^j^g ^g^gg to-day in the essential-oil industry. Except by the 
highly trained chemist, who has specialized in this branch of analysis, the 
detection of adulteration is a matter of practical impossibility, and it is 
quite possible for every ofiicial test to be met by an oil which is entirely 
an artificial mixture. It is therefore absolutely necessary to purchase only 
from those reputable firms who will sell under strict guarantee that the 
articles are genuine natural products. It is perfectly true that in many 


cases the synthetic products are identical in chemical composition with 

tlie natural ones; still, it is better to purchase such substances at market 

rates, with one's eyes open, as artificial products, than to buy them at an 

enhanced figure under the impression that they are cheap natural ones. 

Again, it must be remembered that the strongest smelling and tasting 

oils are not always the most satisfactory. Flavour should always be 

more or less a creation of the mind, just induced by a suspicion of some 

marked principle rather than that coarse biting taste which overpowers 

the taste nerves and revolts the educated palate. Great moderation 

should always be exercised in the use of these concentrated materials, 

so as to avoid spoiling good products through a too liberal use of the 

flavour bottle. 

Of all the essential oils, that of lemon is the sheet-anchor of the 

confectioner, and used in just the right proportion none is more pleasant 

and refreshinof. Unfortunately this essence is sometimes used ^., . _ 

. ,.,... ,. „ , Oil of Lemon, 

in such lavish quantity to mask interior ingredients of the 

mixing that there is danger of its falling into bad repute. Oil of lemon 
is obtained from the fruit of Citrus limonuTn. It is generally prepared 
during the months of November to April. The chief centre of the in- 
dustry is Messina, though much is also produced in the Palermo district 
of Sicily. The oil is obtained sometimes by means of strong pressure 
upon the rinds, by which the oil cells become ruptured and the oil escapes 
and is collected on the surface of water. Another method consists in 
removing the rinds in three pieces, scraping the surfaces, and pressing 
upon a sponge. The sponge is afterwards squeezed to recover the oil. 
By this process a worker can produce 1^ lb. of lemon oil per day. Re- 
covery by distillation is not practised except in the case of poor qualities, 
since lemon oil is injured by this process. To purify the oil it is simply 

Citral is the constituent to which the flavour and odour of lemon oil are 
chiefly due, and it occurs in pure oil to the extent of about 5 to 7 per cent. 
The great bulk of the remainder of even pure lemon oils Flavouring 
consists of terpenes. Unfortunately even the citral content Agent m Lemon, 
cannot be relied upon as a test of purity, for low-grade lemon oils are 
commonly fortified by the addition of citral obtained from lemon-grass oil. 
Citral is artificially prepared by oxidizing geraniol with chromic acid. 
Other methods of adulteration consist in treating orange oil with turpentine 
in such quantity as will escape detection. The chief method of adulterating 
now consists in adding the " terpenes " — obtained in the process of making 
" terpeneless " oils — to turpentine. It is practically useless to test lemon 
oils for adulteration by any simple process, since every test of the Pharma- 
copoeia is easily evaded by the adulterator. 

Lemon oil is imported in original coppers containing 10 to 100 lb., and 
genuine oil will cost about 5 to 6 shillings per lb. 

Lemon essences should contain 5 per cent of lemon oil in dilute alcohol. 
In making cheap essences the chief object is to use as little alcohol as 

VOL. I. ' 37 


possible on the score of expense; but if less than 45 per cent spirit is 

Essence of used no lemon oil will be dissolved at all. Still, such fluids are 

Lemon. frequently made, and they do possess a certain odour and taste 

of lemon, although no oil can be detected by analysis. The flavour is 

sometimes reinforced by artificial citral, citronella, or lemon-grass oil, whilst 

colouring in the form of turmeric or coal-tar dyes is used to obtain the 

characteristic tint. 

Oil of orange is obtained from orange peel in the same manner as lemon 

oil is prepared. It is a yellow-coloured liquid, of mild flavour, some- 

^., - ^ times used as a substitute for lemon oil after mixing: with 

Oil of Orange. ... " 

terpenes or turpentine to impart the necessary pungency. 

Lemon-grass oil is obtained by distillation from Andropogo7i citratus, 
a grass cultivated in India. The oil is reddish-yellow in colour, with an 
Lemon- intense lemon-like odour and flavour. It contains large quan- 
Grass Oil. titles of citral, amounting often to 75 per cent. 

Citronella oil is the distillation product of the grass Andropogon 
Nardus. It is a yellowish to brown liquid. It does not resemble lemon 
C't 11 0"1 ^^^ ^^^^ much in odour, though its flavour is somewhat 

Peppermint oil is the product of Mentha piperita, growing wild in 
some parts of England, and cultivated to some extent in Cambridgeshire, but 
Oil of notably at Mitcham, Surrey. The whole plant is rich in the 

Peppermint, fine-flavoured oil, which is obtained by distillation. The oil 
has a greenish -yellow colour usually, and the odour is strong and pene- 
trating. It contains menthol, to which the cold feeling in the mouth 
is attributable. The oil should dissolve in four times its volume of 
70-per-cent alcohol. 

Essence of Peppermint essence should contain 3 per cent of the 

Peppermint, essential oil. 

Among the many other essential oils may be mentioned the various 

extracts of orange flowers, e.g. neroli, petit grain, otto of roses. These 

oils are prepared principally for the perfumery industry, 

but they also form the basis for some of the waters used 

in flavouring lozenges, &c., in confectionery. 

Essential oils can be prepared from all spices and aromatic seeds, and 
consequently essential oils of anise, cloves, coriander, cassia, cinnamon. 
Essential Oils caraway, ginger, mace, and nutmeg are commercial products, 
from Spices. They are obtained by the general methods already mentioned, 
the process being adapted to produce the finest quality of oil. In many 
cases these essential oils are displacing the spice mixtures, of which they 
form the flavouring principle, the reason for this being largely, that the 
use of the oils obviates the disadvantage of introducing quantities of inert 
coloured cellular and fibrous matter into mixings, thus to some extent 
affecting the delicacy of colour. By using essential oils also various delicate 
blended flavours can be obtained, which would be almost impossible if the 
spice substances had to be used. 


Oil of bitter almonds is obtained by maceration of crushed bitter 
almonds in water and subsequent distillation of the liquid, the distillate 
being the impure oil. The bitter almond, Amygdalus com- oil of Bitter 
Tiiunis, was the original source of this flavouring material, Almonds, 
and hence the name which is now applied to this oil whatever source it 
is prepared from. It may be obtained from peach, plum, and apricot 
kernels, laurel leaves, mountain-ash bark, and indeed all members of 
the group Amygdalinse. The oil does not exist free in these bodies, but 
is contained in the form of a glucoside known as amygdalin. This 
substance can be split into three parts, forming respectively benzaldehyde, 
glucose, and hydrocyanic acid. The formula for this change is usually 
written thus: — 

C20H27NOH + 2H2O = CyHgO + HON + 2C6H,20e 

Amygdalin. Water. Benzaldehyde. Hydrocyanic acid. Glucose. 

This change is brought about by the agency of a ferment or enzyme found 
in almonds, called emulsin. When the crushed nuts are macerated in 
water the above change takes place, and upon distillation of the liquid 
the benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid pass over with some of the water. 
Hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid) is a deadlj^ poison, and the prussic Acid 
distillate is freed from this dangerous impurity by means ^" Almonds, 
of lime water and ferric chloride. The oil is then redistilled and dried over 
calcium chloride. It is well when buying natural oil of bitter almonds to 
obtain a guarantee of freedom from prussic acid. 

Benzaldehyde is a faintly yellow mobile liquid having a burning bitter 
taste and strong almond odour. It boils at 180° C (356° F.), and on stand- 
ing in air becomes oxidized to benzoic acid. It is very soluble Artificial Oil 
in ether and alcohol and but slightly so in water. Benzalde- °^ Almonds, 
hyde can be synthetically prepared by many methods, perhaps the best 
being treatment of toluene by chlorine. The benzyl chloride thus formed 
yields benzaldehyde on distillation with lead nitrate. Thus the oil is 
obtained directly from coal tar. This synthetic oil has exactly the same 
chemical constitution as the natural oil, and has in consequence largely 
replaced it upon the market. Its chief claims to use are entire freedom 
from any trace of prussic acid, and great cheapness. 

Benzaldehyde was at one time often substituted by oil of mirhane, but 
the discovery of synthetic methods of making the true oil has almost 
entirely superseded the use of this artificial substance. Dangerous Sub- 
Nitrobenzene is the true chemical name for this body, stitute for Oil 
It is a heavy yellow oil, boiling at 205° C. (401° F.), and °^ Almonds, 
having a strong sickly odour and taste of almonds. It is obtained by 
nitrating benzene and distilling the product to purify it. Its chemical 
formula is CgHgNOg, and it will be seen that it is quite unlike true benzal- 
dehyde in composition. Nitrobenzene is markedly poisonous, 
and instances of death through inadvertence have occurred 
on several occasions. This substance should on no account be used as 


a flavouring agent in food-stuffs, and no justification whatever can be 
urged for its employment. To .detect nitrobenzene boil 15 c.c. of the 
extract with a little strong potassic hydrate solution. A blood-red colour 
will result with nitrobenzene. Nitrobenzene is only about one-third the 
price of synthetic benzaldehyde or the common natural oils obtained from 
peach kernels. 

Raiafia and Ratafia and kirsch essences owe their principal flavours to 
Kirsch. benzaldehyde. 

The vanilla bean (vanilloes) is the fruit of a climbing orchid, Vanilla 
planifolia, indigenous in South America and the West Indies. Mexican 
beans are the most highly prized; but practically the whole 
available supply is absorbed in America, the European 
demands being met chiefly by the Seychelles and Mauritius products. 
The beans, as they are erroneously called, are about 8 in. in length and 
I in. thick, narrowing and slightly curving toward the ends. They have 
a rich dark-brown colour, and feel waxy to the touch. Deep rifts traverse 
the length of the pods, the surface of which is frequently covered with a 
fine frost-like coating of vanillin crystals. In the centre of the pods a 
thick yellow granular balsam is found, and to this the delicious odour of 
the fruit is largely due. This balsam is not soluble in water, and when 
very dilute alcohol is employed it is not extracted, and consequently 
extracts weak in. alcohol are inferior in quality. Upon soaking in w^ater 
the pods swell up and become triangular in shape. When gathered, the 
fruits are of a yellowish-green colour and without odour. The odour is 
developed as the result of a fermentation or " sweating " process, the 
method difl'ering slightly in various countries. The best method consists 
in sun-drying the pods for about a month, with alternate pressing between 
blankets and exposure to the air. The famous Mexican vanilla is prepared 
in this manner. Another method consists in using artificial heat, and then 
drying the pods by exposure to calcium chloride. By this means the time 
of maturation is greatly reduced, but the quality of the pods cured in this 
manner is decidedly inferior. Vanilla owes its characteristic odour and 
flavour to the chemical compound vanillin, a derivative of protocatechuic 
aldehyde. This substance crystallizes in fine needles. It is scarcely 
soluble in water, but readily in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Its melting- 
point is 80° C. (176° F.). 

The quantity present in vanilla pods is variable, and the highest prized 
Vanillin in beans have the smallest content of vanillin, as the following 

Vanilla Beans, figures of Tiemann and Haarman show: — 

Mexican beans ... ... ... ... 169 per cent vanillin. 

Bourbon „ 2-48 „ 

Java „ ... ... ... ... 2*75 „ 

In addition to vanillin, the pods contain notable amounts of gum, resin, 
sugar, &c., all of which contribute to the formation of the final flavour. 

Vanillin (CgHgOg) can be produced artificially in a variety of ways. 


Oriji;inally it was obtained by the oxidation of coniferin, a substance 
occurring in pine trees. This process, however, is now super- a t'fi ' l 
seded by one which consists in using eugenol and iso-eugenol Production of 
as the base substances, which upon oxidation in alkaline ^^"'^^^"• 
solution yield vanillin. Eugenol is found in large amount in clove oil. 
Many other methods are also now in use. The vanillin obtained artificially 
is identical with natural vanillin in all respects, being a pure chemical 
substance; but it does not possess the full bouquet associated with natural 
extracts from vanilla pods. 

Genuine vanilla extracts should contain 10 parts of the soluble matter 
from vanilla pods in 100 parts of dilute alcohol. Most extracts are sweetened 
with sugar, and many contain also glycerin. The best extracts Vaniila 
are obtained by macerating the pods in alcohol for several months. Extract. 
The content of vanillin in even the best extracts rarely exceeds 2 per 
cent. Some makers use alkalies to obtain greater extractions, especially 
when using very dilute alcohol, but this practice greatly injures the flavour. 
Adulterations of vanilla extract usually take the form of substituting 
artificial vanillin and colouring the product with caramel. Body and 
colour also is imparted to factitious extracts by means of prune juice. 
Tinctures of coumarin and tonka beans are also largely used as sub- 
stitutes for vanilloes. Such artificial compounds, whilst often possessing 
a strong vanilla flavour, are nevertheless much coarser, and lack the 
refinement so marked in genuine extracts. Another form of adultera- 
tion consists in treating the marc, after alcoholic extraction, with water, 
and fortifying the liquid obtained with artificial vanillin and colouring 

Tonka beans are seeds of a tree native in Guiana, and known as 
JDipteryx odorata. The pods are almond-shaped, having a single seed 
about 1| in. long, in shape like a kidney bean. The bean is of Tonka 
a dark-brown colour, with a shining, brittle skin. The active Beans, 
principle is coumarin, the anhydride of coumaric acid. Coumarin can 
be extracted from the beans by means of alcohol; it crystallizes in slender 
needles, shorter and thicker than vanillin crystals. The melting-point 
is 67° C. (153° F.). Coumarin is only slightly soluble in water, but very 
soluble in alcohol, ether, Szc. Coumarin is now synthetically prepared 
by heating salicylic aldehyde with acetic anhydride and sodium acetate. 
The resulting acetocoumaric acid decomposes, forming acetic acid and 
coumarin. This artificial coumarin is often used in making factitious 
vanilla extracts. The presence of coumarin in vanilla extracts Artificial 
is readily detected by anyone acquainted with both kinds, by Coumarin. 
the odour alone. In the case of coumarin the odour is always more 
pungent than vanillin, and when in admixture it usually predominates 
over the milder vanilla odour. Acetate of lead added to a portion of 
the extract should produce a heavy precipitate with genuine vanilla 
extracts. If none is obtained this is conclusive proof that the extract 
is artificial. If only a cloudy precipitate is obtained which does fiot settle 


well, the extract should be regarded with suspicion, as it is probably 
coloured by caramel. 

Vanilla is used in a variety of ways. Either the pod is pulverized 
and used, as in the case of chocolate-making, or it may be used as a tincture. 
Use of or mixed with sugar either as the whole pod or as extract. 
Vanilla. Vanilla extract is made by macerating 3 to 4 oz. of the finely 
chopped pods in 1 pint of rectified spirit, 50 per cent strength, for about 
one month. Filter and preserve in a closely stoppered bottle. Vanilla 
sugar is made by dissolving 1 oz. of vanillin crystals in 4 oz. of alcohol 
by warming to 35° C. (95° F.). Pour over about 14 lb. of sugar in a 
mortar and mix thoroughly. Leave exposed to air for twenty-four hours 
to dry, and then pack into a stoppered bottle to store. 

Vanillons are the fruits of the wild vanilla plant. The odour is quite 
. unlike that of true vanilla, and resembles heliotrope rather 

closely. These beans are used only in perfumery. 




Liqueurs are simply strong alcoholic syrups, in which small quantities 
of certain essential oils are dissolved. For the purpose of making them 
Liqueur it is necessary that the oils used should not cause turbidity 

Flavourings, upon addition of water, or else the appearance of the product 
would be spoiled. For this reason only oils containing little or no resin 
can be employed, and oxygenated oils are mostly drawn upon. In the 
preparation of confectionery, ices, &c., the most highly prized liqueurs are 
the following: — 

Curagoa is made by distilling spirits in which have been soaked 
cinnamon, cura(;oa peel (a rare species of orange), and other 
spices. De Brevans gives the following recipe for its pre- 
paration: — Alcohol (85 per cent), 5 litres; cinnamon, 4 gm.; mace, 2 gm.; 
rasped skins of 18 oranges; white sugar, 1750 gm. Macerate the alcohol 
and spices for fourteen days. Distil and add sugar to distillate, and 
colour with caramel. 

Maraschino was originally obtained from the sour Italian cheiTy. It 

is now commonly made by distillinsf a mixture of wild cherries. 

Maraschino. «/ %/ o ^ ' 

raspberries, cherry leaves, peach nuts, and orris root, sugar 

being added to the distillate. 

Benedictine contains much sugar, and is flavoured by 

angelica, hyssop, nutmeg, and peppermint. 

Chartreuse. Chartreuse is similarly made. 



Angostura is made with Angostura bark and other 

^ " Angostura, 


Greme de Menthe, according to De Brevans, is made as follows: — Pepper- 
mint, 600 gm.; balm, 40 gm.; sage, 10 gm.; cinnamon, 20 gm.; Creme de 
orris, 10 gm.; ginger, 15 gm.; alcohol, 80 per cent, 5030 gm.; Menthe. 
sugar, 3750 gm. 

The green colour is sometimes imparted by chlorophyll in the best 
qualities, but in cheap grades it is obtained by coal-tar dyes. 

Fruit Essences 

Fruit essences are almost entirely artificial productions, since it is 
practically impossible to extract from the fruits their dis- Nature of 
tinctive flavours in quantities sufficient for commercial ^'■"'* Essences, 

As a rule, these flavours are compounded from various ethers; and 
whilst these do possess a certain resemblance to the real fruit flavour, yet 
they are generally much coarser and lack the delicacy which is so distinc- 
tive of the natural substances. Some of the compound ethers bear odours 
and flavours which strikingly resemble certain fruits, and such can be used 
singly. In other cases complex blends have to be made in order to simu- 
late nature. It is needless to remark that such substances should never be 
sold as " pure fruit essences ", but should always be declared as of artificial 
origin. Among the best-known essences are the following: — 

Pineapi^le essence is butyric ether dissolved in alcohol. It is prepared 
by mixing butyric acid and alcohol in equal parts, and treat- Pineapple 
ing with concentrated sulphuric acid. The mixture is distilled Essence, 
to obtain the ether. It is a colourless liquid insoluble in water, with a 
boiling point of 228° C. (442° F.). 

Pear essence is an alcoholic solution of amyl acetate. The ether is 

prepared from amyl alcohol and potassium acetate by dis- ^ ^ 

^ . .. ... Pear Essence. 

tillation with sulphuric acid. The colourless distillate is 

insoluble in water and boils at 137° C. (279° F.). 

Apple essence is amyl valerianate dissolved in alcohol. It is made by 
taking equal parts of amyl alcohol and sulphuric acid and adding Apple 
to the cooled mixture valerianic acid, and subsequently distilling. Essence. 
The ether boils at 188° C. (370° F.). 

An extraordinary number of blended essences are put upon the market. 
Among the more important may be noted the following, the formulae for 
which have been selected from Kletzensky's table in the Composition of 
United States Dispensatory. In all cases the number of Fruit Essences, 
parts given in the table are to be added to 100 parts of rectified alcohol. 

In many cases instead of using essences or oils it is more satisfactory 
to use the fruits themselves for flavour. Thus, lemon flavour Real Fruit 
can be imparted to cakes and ices best by using the zest; orange Flavours, 
by using peel cut so fine as to be imperceptible in the cakes. Ginger in the 



preserved form is an excellent addition to rich cakes. When oils or essences 
are used .it is better to obtain good qualities and use them with great care. 

TABr.E I'OR Compounding Fkuit Essences 
































Chloroform ... 
Nitrous ether 
Aldehyde ... 
Acetic ether 
Formic ether 
Butyric ether 
Valerianic ether .. 
Benzoic ether 
(Enanthic ether 
Oil of persicot 
Sebacic ether 
Methyl salicylic eth( 
Amyl alcohol 
Amyl acetic ether . . 
Amyl butyric ether 
Saturated alcoholic s 

Tartaric acid . . 

Oxalic acid 

Succinic acid .. 

Benzoic acid 


lolution of — 






























In addition to the flavours already given may be added butter flavour, 
now frequently sold for use in goods made with the various substitute fats, 
Butter to impart butter flavour. This essence consists of butyric ether 
Flavour, dissolved in alcohol, sometimes with the addition of traces of 
myristic ether. 



Not so many years ago the craft of the confectioner in Great Britain 
was as much separated from that of the bread baker as it is still in most 
The old Cook Continental countries. The cooks — men and women — were 
Confectioners, the confectioners, and while there was a firmly-established 
craft of old English confectioners, their duties were not distinctively con- 
fined to flour confectionery. The old title of pastry cook betrays the posi- 
tion they occupied as attendants on cooks, or as cooks themselves, with 
pastry baking as a sort of by-occupation. Midway between the cooks and 
Old-time ^^^ bread bakers were the biscuit bakers, who were of very 

Biscuit Bakers, great importance in the days before the biscuit factories. 
Modern developments have resulted in the pastry cook becoming more and 


more divorced from his duties as cook, and more and more engaged in those 
of the pastry baker. This is especially true of those who are employed in 
ordinary bakery establishments, but is not quite so true of piace of the 
those employed in the kitchens of hotels and restaurants. Pastry Cook. 
The old confectioner was also a man who had to concern himself a great deal 
with sugar and sugar-boiling. His modern representative has still to know 
a great deal about sugar, but is much less of an expert in sugar-boiling. 
The reason of this seems to be that the tastes of the consuming public 
in the matter of table confectionery have very much altered. Public Taste 
and there is a dwindling demand, or an entire disappearance of Altered, 
the demand, for the elaborate and costly confections made from pulled and 
spun sugar, the place of which has been taken by Continental delicacies in 
which fondant and flavoured creams occupy so prominent a place. 

The occupation of the biscuit baker as a distinctive craftsman has also 
suffered by the change of public taste and by the competition of the large 
factories. The modern confectioner has therefore to gain an Biscuit Bakers 
exhaustive experience of the kind of goods which not so Crushed Out. 
long ago were considered purely Continental. He has also to take up the 
residuum of the work which used to be done by the biscuit Modem Flour 
baker, and last but not least, he has to be skilful in pro- Confectioner, 
ducing the common goods which form the bulk of the sales in the majority 
of bakers' shops. 

There are still a great many establishments in which flour confectionery 
only is made, a larger number still in which bread and confectionery are 
kept strictly apart, some in which both are produced by the Mixture of 
same hands, and some in which bread only is made. But these Trades, 
distinctions and divisions are gradually disappearing. There are very few 
bread bakeries in which cake and some sorts of confectionery are not now 
being made, and, on the other hand, those which have hitherto been devoted 
only to the confectionery trade are gradually opening out with bread. 

To meet the needs of all, the purpose underlying the scheme of the 
Confectionery Section of this work is to deal with the whole confectionery 
trade thoroughly, nothing being considered too plain, cheap, or common to 
warrant neglect, and nothing too costly or uncommon to place it out of the 
range of careful treatment. In pursuance of this plan the simplest matters 
relating to confectionery — the consideration of the goods, in fact, which 
usually fall to the bread bakers to make — will be dealt with 
first. Buns answer this description, and are otherwise worthy 
of first place, because they are old in favour and yet seem to retain the 
respect if not the love of the average customer amidst all the changes of 
taste that are taking place in other directions. 

In making fermented buns there are certain considerations which are 
common to all sorts and varieties. Amongst these it is impor- influence 
tant to take stock of the kind of flour with which the best of Flour in 
results are to be obtained. The nature of the flour, perhaps, ""^' 
more than anything else determines the kind of bun that will be produced. 

Vol. I. 38 


If only bulk is to be considered, then very strong flour may be used, 
the fat employed being to some extent corrective of the harshness which 
Strong Flour follows the use of very strong flour by itself in bread. But as 
Mellowed. softness and keeping properties are of really more considera- 
tion than bulk, flour that is a little less than the strongest is very suitable 
for all this class of goods. The writer has obtained these qualities in buns 
Kansas and ^^ ^ ^^S^ degree when using a patent grade Kansas flour, 

Australian Flour a high grade Australian, and a patent grade British-milled 
flour. In recipes sometimes made public, the use of Hun- 
garian or, as it is generally called, Vienna flour, is strongly advised, but, 
except for buns that are not wanted large, and that can be sold at a full 
price, it is a mistake to use this sort of flour, when better results can be 
obtained by the use of the products of our own mills at a lower price. 
Flour that is suitable for bread-making, containing almost 105 per cent 
of dry gluten, is generally suitable for fermented buns. A reservation 
Hungarian ^^7' tiowever, be made in the case of very rich buns of the 
Flour for Bath type. These, owing to their richness, are not wanted 
ic uns. |g^^ g^j^^j jjQ^ being fermented very much, would be tough 
if made with very strong flour. Flour of the Hungarian or Australian 
sorts is therefore best suited for such goods. 

It is an almost invariable practice in bun-making to make a ferment 
with milk, sugar, flour, and yeast as a preliminary stage. The object is 
p to make a small quantity of yeast do a great quantity of work 

of Ferment by actually multiplying the number of yeast cells in the fer- 
Stage. ment itself; but probably quite as much advantage is obtained 

by the development of the yeast cell in its flour environment, which is 
akin to a sort of acclimatizing influence that fits it better to stand the 
Use of Ferment conditions prevailing in the subsequent dough stage. It 
in Bun-making, is not impossible to make buns, and very satisfactory 
buns, too, by the straight-dough method, but the yeast in such cases seems 
Straight- ^^ work much slower, especially at the beginning of the 

Dough Buns, process. The explanation seems to be that the presence of 
so much fat and sugar mixed with the flour produces a condition not very 
favourable to the activity of yeast when it is first immersed in it. 

There is great diversity of opinion amongst bakers and confectioners 
as to the proper quantity of flour and other ingredients to use in the 
Thin versus ferment. Some favour one that is very thin, whilst others 

Thick Ferments, think the best results are obtained with one that is rather 
thick, or, as it is called, a strong ferment. It may be urged against a 
very thin mixture that the flour in such a ferment falls to a layer at 
the bottom, and although the sugar added, with that naturally in the 
flour, as well as the soluble proteids of the latter, will still be available 
for yeast food and growth, the ferment is unsatisfactory, because it either 
does not rise in a healthy way or it drops too soon. A very thick ferment, 
on the other hand, is more like a soft dough, and confines the action of the 
individual yeast cell to a very prescribed area, because there is little or no 


flow of the matei'ial of the ferment from one part to another. The best 
results are obtained with a ferment that is just thick enough to support 
its own material without allowing the flour to deposit, and yet not thick 
enough to prevent a free movement of the material, and proper 
therefore of the yeast within the ferment. This result Quantity of Flour 
will generally be obtained by using about 8 oz. of flour '" erment. 
to 1 qt. of liquor, whether milk or water. It is quite a safe plan to make 
and maintain a ferment at 86" to 90° F., and this will gene- Temperature 
rally require w^ater about 100° to 104° F. A ferment of this for Ferments. 
kind should drop in from thirty to forty minutes. Some men are very 
particular to reckon the amount of sugar in the ferment as a deduction 
from the total sugar required to sweeten the buns, but this need sugar in 
not be done. It is not necessary to have more than 2 or 3 oz. of Ferment, 
sugar for each quart of liquor used in the ferment, but it should be remem- 
bered that after this sugar has been fermented it has no sweetening effect 
whatever. As yeast growth and not gas production is the desideratum in 
a ferment, it is a mistake to use even the larger quantity of sugar here 
stated at the ferment stage, as it is known that when yeast is at its 
maximum activity in producing gas and alcohol it is less active sugar not 
in producing new yeast. The latter eflfect may be increased, a Yeast- 
however, by the manner in which the ferment is prepared. ^'^° ^^^^' 
The yeast should be thoroughly broken down and mixed in a small portion 
of the water only, as it evades the mixing utensil if first placed in the 
whole of the liquor. When made into a paste with some of the water 
it may then be easily mixed through the remainder. The Aerating 
sugar should be added, then the flour, and a small hand Bun Ferment, 
whisk used to mix thoroughly and aerate the whole ferment. The incor- 
poration of a considerable quantity of air in this way is credited with 
increasing the vitality and activity of the yeast, if only care is taken not to 
reduce the temperature. 

Some profess to find great virtue in adding part of or all the eggs at 
the ferment stage, but the advantages are very doubtful. If only a few 
eggs are to be used in a mixing, their addition to the ferment Eggs in 
is a matter of little moment, but if the ferment is one for rich Ferment, 
buns, the addition of the eggs at that stage acts rather as a cloy or hin- 
drance to yeast activity. The proteids of egg or of the parts of egg are 
not directly suitable for yeast food, and their addition to the ferment is 
not, therefore, as some suppose, a means to greater vitality. 

Coming now to the dough stage of bun-making, it is important to note 
that, with regard to both fat and sugar, there are limits to the proportions 
that may be used. For fats, experience teaches that it is Eifects of 
nearly impossible to get any fermentation at all if more than Excessive Fat. 
4 oz. of fat to each 1 lb. of flour is used. With care in handling this 
quantity can be used, but only along with moderately strong flours, and 
then only if the fat is added in such a way as not to give the flour a 
greasy feel. On this account it is better, if the quantity of fat is large, 


to rub it in with the flour very loosely, rather than to run it in melted, or 
Mixing Fat rubbed amongst the flour very finely. One very curious point 
or Melting, about the influence of fat on flour is, that if these be rubbed 
together and then allowed to lie for a week or two in that condition, and 
then made into bun dough with a ferment, the dough will flatten out and 
look greasy and the yeast activity will be almost stopped. This eflect is 
c of produced even if the quantity of fat used is not excessive. 

Fat affecting The Only reasonable explanation that can be oflered is that 
Fermentation. ^^ some way the starch of the flour, with the sugary and 
proteid matter adhering, gets coated over with grease, which thus im- 
prisons, as it were, the materials on which the yeast works and lives. 
Effects of Nearly the same eflects are produced if yeast is immersed in 
Oil or Fat oil or melted fat before being used in a ferment or bun dough, 
on east. j^ ^j^-^ ^^^^ ^^^ yeast cells are evidently rendered impermeable 
to food from outside, whilst their enzymes are from the same cause pre- 
vented from coming out to perform their usual functions. 

Nearly the same limit — viz. 4 oz. per lb. of flour used — is the maximum 
in the case of sugar. If a larger proportion than this is mixed the buns 
Effects of ^^^^ ^*-*^ ferment, but run out flat. This may be the result of 
Excessive two distinct causes. The amount of sugar here stated— 4 oz. per 
^^^^- lb. of flour — would be equivalent to about a 40-per-cent solution 
if the quantity of liquid used is taken as the basis of measurement, and it 
is well known that a sugar solution of this density offers a very unsuitable 
medium for the growth of yeast. The other part explanation of the 
flattening of the buns may be that already referred to in connection with 
the effect of too much sugar in bread, that the gluten of the flour is 
softened, and its elasticity destroyed by an excessive quantity of sugar. 
General Basis As a basis for all bun calculations, it is safe to assume that 
for Buns. fQjr. every 1 lb. of flour used not more than 3| oz. of fat and 

Sh oz. of sugar can be used; and as a matter of fact these quantities, 
without any addition of eggs whatever, produce buns that keep soft and 
moist for a considerable time, and are otherwise satisfactory. 

Eggs are certainly useful in giving buns a rich colour and a fine 
Eggs not appearance when new, but they do not keep the buns moist 
Necessary, jj^ ^^g same way as the maximum quantity of yeast and sugar 
mentioned above does. 

One defect in flavour of ordinary buns made with sugar, lard, eggs, 
yeast, and flour is a certain insipidity or mawkishness that is hardly 
Flavour pleasant. This is not very noticeable in those containing much 
of Buns, fi-uit, but it is in plain sorts; and to improve the flavour it is 
rather a common practice to add essence of lemon. This is not harmful if 
used in moderation, but the rule is generally to use too much. If butter is 
used in buns, or even if the fat is lard or other tasteless sort, the addition 
of ^ oz. of salt at the dough stage, to each 4 lb. of flour 
used, removes the insipidity referred to, without in any way 
destroying the sweetness or seriously hindering the fermentation. 


For a common plain bun that pays to sell at about seven for Sd. the^ 
following mixture may be used. Make a ferment with 1 qt. milk and 
1 qt. water, the two together at 100'' F. Stir into this 4 oz. . 

sugar and dissolve 5 oz. yeast, then beat 1 lb. of flour well into 
it with a whisk. This ferment, kept in a warm place, will rise and drop in 
about thirty-five minutes. Make dough with 8 lb. flour, into which If lb. 
of lard or neutral fat has been rubbed, 1^ lb. sugar, and 1 oz. salt, and the 
ferment as above. Let the dough stand exactly one hour; then knead well 
and scale into pieces 3| lb. each to cut on the machine into thirty buns. 
These are rolled and placed on greased baking sheets, and proved in a steam 
cupboard for about twenty-five minutes. The buns may be glazed with 
e^g wash, consisting of one egg and enough water to fill half the shell, 
just before setting in the oven, in which case either a camel - hair or a 
paper brush must be used. They may be glazed while hot after baking 
with one of the following glazes: (1) The plain egg wash \kt u 

described above; (2) a glaze made with 1 egg, a gill of 
water, and 1 oz. sugar; (3) clear syrup made by boiling about 6 oz. sugar 
in ^ pt. water, in which | oz. gelatine has been previously soaked; (4) a 
clear strong syrup alone. Any of these will produce a good glaze, the last 
one being the least satisfactory, as, unless it is washed on immediately the 
buns come from the oven, they are liable to be sticky. This \at h 

mixture may be used for plain buns, or for small afternoon 
tea buns or fingers (see Plate, Fermented Buns, Nos. 2, 3, 9, 11), or for 
Sally Lunns, which are simply bun dough pinned out flat for Id. size, or 
baked in hoops for 2d. size. 

The following recipes are all well tried, and will produce buns of excel- 
lent quality, at the same time giving variety, which is so conducive to good 
business. The old familiar currant buns may be made as follows : — 

Currant Buns 

Ferment set with liquor Dough 

at 100° F. 4 lb. flour (English patent). 

1 pint milk. 6 oz. butter. 

1 pint water. \ lb. lard. 

3 oz. sugar. \ lb. sugar. 

8 oz. flour. 6 oz. currants. 

2\ oz. yeast. | oz. salt. 

Prepare the ferment by whisking together all the ingredients in a jam 
jar or other suitable vessel, and placing this in a warm cupboard for about 
forty minutes. Sift the flour, and then rub the butter and Making the 
lard into it. Make a bay, into which place the sugar; sprinkle Ferment, 
the currants over the flour. When the ferment is ready, stir it well, and 
ejnpty into the bay; make all up into a dough, using no liquid except 
that in the ferment. This dough must be perfectly smooth and free from 
scraps. Slightly warm a pan, and dust with flour; place the dough in this 
and cover over with a bag, and allow it to stand in a warm cupboard for 


about forty minutes. It will then be found to be in full proof, when it 
must be turned out upon the board, well kneaded, and then allowed to 
prove for another thirty minutes. At the end of this time the dough will 
Making Dough be ready for dividing up. Weigh into 6-oz. pieces, halve 
and Proving. these and hand up lightly, and place about four in a row 
on warmed greased baking sheets. Allow to prove in a warm cupboard 
which contains only sufficient steam to prevent a skin forming on top of 
g . . the buns. Prove to about double their original size, and bake 

Temperature in a hot oven at 450° F., noting carefully, however, that they 
for Buns. ^^^.^ done sufficiently by trying them at the light-coloured 

parts at the sides (about eight minutes is sufficient time to bake them 
thoroughly). Bake to a rich colour. On removing the buns from the 
oven, wash over with bun wash made from ^ pt. milk, 2 eggs, and sufficient 
Prepared sugar to sweeten. A large quantity of sugar must not be 
Egg Wash, added, as this will make the buns sticky. Syrup may also be 
used as bun wash, if preferred. It is made by boiling together for a few 
Syrup for minutes 3J lb. lump sugar and 1 qt. water, and may be kept in 
Egg Wash, stock to use as required. Another method of washing them 
over is by breaking two eggs into a basin, stirring these well together with 
a wash brush, and washing over the buns before proof and again before 
baking. The latter operation must be done with a soft camel-hair brush, 
, , , or, failing that, with a piece of soft paper folded and cut 

Flipping when several times to represent a brush, and the washing must be 
in Proof. done very gently to prevent the proof being destroyed. The 

following is another method for currant buns: — 

4^ lb. flour (English patent). 
Rich Penny Bun. 10 oz. butter. 

6 eggs. 
Ferment as given far \ lb. orange peel. 

first method. 6 oz. currants, 

f lb. sugar. 
^ oz. salt. 
Prepare the ferment and dough as for the previous mixture, scale at the 
same weight, wash over with egg before baking, and place a thin piece of 
orange peel on each: or they may be dusted over with castor sugar only 
instead of glazing. 

A third method for currant buns is as follows: — 

4^ lb. flour (English patent). 
Royal Currant Bun. | lb. melted butter. 

10 oz. castor sugar. 
Ferment as described 4 eggs. 

for first method. 8 yolks. 

\ lb. lemon peel. 
6 oz. currants. 
J oz. salt. 


Prepare the ferment as for the other currant buns. For the dough sift 
the flour and make a bay, add the sugar and eggs with the ferment, and 
make all up into dough. Give this a good beating; carefully clarified 
work in the warmed clarified butter until the dough is smooth Butter 
and tough; then mix in the fruit. Store this dough away until *" ""®' 
ready for a little over an hour, then scale off at 2|-oz. pieces. Hand 
these up and place upon greased wnrmed baking sheets, and prove with 
little steam. Before baking, wash over with egg, and place some sugar 
nibs on the top of each. (See Plate, Fermented Buns, Nos. 15, 17.) 

Mince Buns 

Prepare a dough as for currant buns (third recipe above), leaving out 
the fruit. Scale off in 2:^-oz. pieces, roll round, and then turn each piece 
over upon the board previously dusted with flour. Slightly 
flatten the dough with the hand and place a piece of Banbury 
meat in the centre of each piece, and fold over as for dough nuts. Keep 
them perfectly round, place upon greased baking sheets, and prove with 
little steam. When half proved, take a sharp knife and make five or six 
cuts around the border of each bun. Finish proving, bake in hot oven, and 
wash over with bun wash; before this dries, dust some granulated sugar 
over the top of the buns. 

Lemon Tea Buns 

Prepare these buns by following the same method as for the mince 
buns, but flavour the dough with essence of lemon, and add a small tea- 
spoonful of lemon curd to each in place of the Banbury meat. Lemon Tea 
The shape of these buns may be varied by rolling them long Buns, 
with a point at each end and about 1^ inch wide. When half proved, one 
cut is made in the centre of the top of each lengthways. Lemon-shaped 
They are as before washed over with egg, and again with Buns, 
bun wash when baked, and some granulated sugar is spread over their tops. 
These buns are sold at a penny each. 

Swiss Buns 

A\ lb. flour (English patent), 
f lb. lard. 
Ferment as for huns J lb. sugar. 

already given. Essence of lemon. 

Egg colour. 
A little powdered cinnamon. 

Prepare the dough with ferment as used for the other buns, only add a 
little colour to give the appearance of eggs. Scale in 5^-oz. pieces, halve 
these, and roll round in the usual way; then cover with a warm cloth for 
five minutes. Prepare some wanned greased baking sheets, roll each piece 


of dough out pear-shape about 3 in. in length, and place these on the 
baking sheets in groups of six or seven as required, arranged in a circle 
(see Plate, Fermented Buns, No. 16), so that the points of the pieces come 
together in the centre. Wash over with egg or milk, slightly dust with 
castor sugar, prove with little steam in a warm cupboard, and bake in a 
hot oven. Upon taking these from the oven splash them over with bun 

Another method of making these buns is to roll them out to a length of 
4 in. all the same thickness, and place them about | in. apart upon greased 
Water Icing baking sheets. When baked and almost cold, brush over the 
for Buns. ^ops some warm- water icing, prepared by mixing fine pulverized 
or icing sugar with warm water into a stiff paste. This sugar paste runs 
smooth when spread on buns. (See Plate, Fermented Buns, Nos. 1 and 4.) 

Bath Buns 

It frequently happens that buns of some sort are wanted at very short 
notice, and Bath buns are not infrequently specified. The following mix- 
Cheap Bath or ture is one that produces a bun that keeps soft and moist 
London Buns. fQj. ^ good time, and is very suitable for shop trade where 
customers will not readily pay more than a penny and yet expect a large 
bun for this money. Mix well 8 lb. rather soft flour, 2 oz. bicarbonate of 
soda, and 4 oz. cream of tartar. Into this flour rub 1| lb. lard or other 
neutral fat. Make a bay and weigh into it 1|^ lb. sugar, 1 lb. cake crumbs, 
and 8 eggs. Place round the outside of the flour 1| lb. orange peel, cut 
fine, and 1^ lb. sultanas. Make all into a dough with 2 quarts butter- 
milk. Should there be any fermented dough left from a previous bun- 
mixing, it may be broken down amongst the milk and mixed with the 
other ingredients in the dough; such addition is a decided improvement in 
keeping the buns longer soft, although they keep moist without it. There 
is, however, an advantage in being able to use up bun dough in this M^ay, if 
less had been needed for the ordinary fermented goods than the usual 
mixture produced. After the dough is made it can be immediately dropped on 
the tins. The dough is somewhat soft, and the buns in consequence are not 
weighed and rolled in the usual way, but pieces are cut off" by the fingers 
the size of each bun and dropped on the greased baking sheet in such a way 
as to give them a rough appearance. The buns are then washed over with 
a strong egg glaze, and some sugar nibs are placed on the centre of each. 
If the dough contains any fermented dough, it is better to let the buns 
stand for ten minutes before baking; but otherwise they may be baked off' 
at once in a rather hot oven, say about 460° F. This quantity of dough 
should produce about 8 dozen buns at one penny each. 

For penny Bath buns of the ordinary kind the following may be used. 
Fermented Take about 6 lb. of dough as prepared for currant buns (first 
Bath Buns, recipe), and when half proved, work into it 1 lb. sultanas, | lb. 
currants, 4 oz. orange peel, a few eggs, or yolks and eggs mixed together, 







I, 4, Iced Buns or Queen's Rolls. 2, 3, Small Tea Buns. 5, 6, 7, 10, Crullers or American Dough Nuts. 

8, 12, Berlin Pancakes or Dough Nuts. 9, 11, Tea Fingers. 13, 14, Chelsea Buns. 15, 17, Currant 

Buns. 16, Swiss Bun. 18, 21, Raspberry Buns. 19, 20, Snowballs. 22, 23, 24, 25, Bath Buns. 


Ferment as already given. 


and tighten the dough up with scone flour. Allow to lie for 30 minutes, 
break off in pieces about 2.^ oz. each, and shape up upon baking sheets 
about four in a row. Wash over with egg, place some sugar nibs on top, 
prove slightly, and bake in a sharp oven. When they are baked splash 
them over with bun wash. 

In opood neighbourhoods and in high-class restaurants a much richer 
bun is required. The following may be UvSed for buns to sell at 2d. each: — 

4 lb. flour (English patent). 
1^ lb. butter. Rich Restau- 

I lb. sugar nibs. f^"* ^""• 

6 oz. sultanas. 
\ lb. mixed peel. 
6 eggs. 
12 yolks. 
A pinch of yeast. 

Sift the flour on to the board, rub the butter into it, make a bay, and 
place in the centre the eggs and yolks, together with the usual ferment. 
Make up a medium stiff" dough. Allow this to lie for one hour in a warm 
cupboard, then return it to the board and chop in the sugar nibs and mixed 
fruit with a scraper. Place all back again in the cupboard to rest for 
twenty minutes; turn it out again upon the board; break off" pieces about 
3 oz. each and place upon greased baking sheets. Wash the tops with egg, 
sprinkle on some sugar nibs, and prove for a short time in a warm dry 
cupboard, bake in hot oven, and splash with bun wash. 

Another method of making these buns is to add part of the eggs to 
the ferment, make the dough up without fruit, add castor Method of Mixing 
sugar instead of lump, hand them up round and wash ^^*^ Buns, 
with egg wash thin, then sprinkle some castor sugar over before baking. 
This is the form of bun that finds favour in the city of Bath now. 

The necessity for mixing the sugar nibs and fruit after bun dough is 
half proved may not be very apparent, but it is done because it is important 
that the sugar nibs should remain as nibs, and not be dissolved as long as 
fermentation is proceeding; otherwise so much sugar prevents the yeast 
from working altogether. 

A richer Bath bun than the above, and one that gives satisfaction, is 
made as follows. 1 quart of milk and 1 quart of water is heated up to 
104° F., and 4 oz. sugar and 7 oz. yeast dissolved in it; then 1 lb. imperial 
moderately strong flour is thoroughly mixed and well aerated ^^^^ ^""• 
by stirring with a whisk. This ferment should rise well in the jar and 
drop in about 25 minutes. Dough is made with 9 lb. English-milled patent 
flour, into which has been loosely rubbed If lb. sweet butter, all the fer- 
ment, 1 dozen eggs, and a few drops essence of lemon. The dough is 
allowed to stand covered up in a warm place for one hour, then 4 lb. sugar 
nibs, 1| lb. orange peel chopped very fine, and lit lb. sultanas are w^orked 

Vol. I, 39 


into the dough. It is then ready for dividing into buns and placing on 
baking sheets. As this dough is moderately firm, it is not so suitable 
for breaking out in pieces with the fingers, but it can be conveniently 
weighed in large pieces, say 5 lb., then cut out in 30 pieces in a machine, if 
such is available. If not, each pair of buns will be 5| oz. Each piece 
is then torn into smaller pieces on the baking sheet to give it a rock-like 
appearance. The buns are given about 15 minutes proof, and are then 
Cause of Bath glazed with a strong wash consisting of yolks and a little 
Buns Hardening, water well mixed, so that the grain or fibre of the former 
is thoroughly broken. They are baked in a warm oven, and care must be 
taken that they are not overbaked, as there is a danger with such a large 
quantity of sugar in them that this sugar will run out at the bottoms of the 
buns and produce a black hard crust of a bitter taste. When this happens 
the buns become very hard when stale, but if only sufficiently baked in an 
oven not overheated at the sole, they keep soft and moist, and are alto- 
gether satisfactory. (See Plate, Fermented Buns, Nos. 22, 23, 24, 25.) 

Jam Buns 

To obtain variety in buns, jams of various sorts may be used as centres 
in the following manner. Make a ferment in the usual way with 1 qt. half 
milk and half water at 100° F., 8 oz. flour, 2 oz, sugar, and 2^ oz. yeast. 
When this drops make dough with 

4^ lb. flour (English patent). 
Jam Buns. 10 oz. butter 

1 lb. sugar. 
4 yolks. 

2 eggs. 

Prepare the dough as for currant buns. When proved sufficiently, scale off 
at 4 oz.; halve these pieces, hand up, and place them about 1 in. apart on 
greased baking sheets. Press each slightly with the hand, and place to 
prove in a warm, dry cupboard, free from draughts. When half proved. 
Blocks place upon the top of each a thick biscuit, made with flour and 
for Buns, water, about 1 in. in diameter, and kept for use day after day; or a 
piece of cork may be used, and will answer the same purpose. Slightly press 
these on to the dough, dust the border of each bun with castor sugar, and 
finish proving with some steam. Bake in a sharp oven, remove the pieces of 
biscuit, wash the buns over with bun glaze, and when cold fill in the centre 
of each with some greengage jam. It will be necessary to grease slightly 
the pieces of biscuit or cork which may be used, so that these may be 
removed without breaking the buns. These buns should be square in 
Baking shape, and baked to a light golden colour. Before proving in 

Jam Buns, the warm cupboard, the sides of each bun should be touched 
lightly with the butter brush, so that they may be separated with smooth 
sides. (See Plate, Fermented Buns, Nos. 18, 21.) 



Hot Cross Buns 

A very satisfactoiy hot cross bun for Good Friday trade is made as 
follows. Make a ferment as already described with 14 oz. 
yeast, 1 lb. sugar, 3 lb. flour, 2 qt. milk and special 
4 qt. water at 104° F. When this is dropped. Hot Cross 
make dough with 25 lb. flour, 4 lb. sugar, 4| lb. ""^' 
lard, 16 eggs, 3 lb. currants, and h oz. essence of mixed 
spice and 1^ oz. salt. The buns are 
cut out and rolled in the usual way, 
and allowed to prove for some time 
dry before being docked with a cross 
(figs. 25 and 26). They are then 
glazed with egg wash and proving is 
finished in steam if possible. The 
buns look creamy-yellow in crumb, 
and are much better without any egg 

Fig. 25.— Hot Cross 
Bun Docker (vertical) 

Fig. 26.— Hot Cross Bun 
Docker (end view) 

Chelsea Buns 

A popular bun in English confectioners' shops — but, it must be con- 
fessed, not so popular as it was at one time — is that known as the Chelsea 
Bun. This is more difficult to make nicely than the ordinary bun, but if 
good materials are used, and care taken, it is very nice to eat. A ferment 
is made as for ordinary buns, then the dough consists of — 

4| lb. flour (English patent). 

f lb. butter. Chelsea Buns. 

^ lb. sugar. 

4 eggs. 

8 yolks. 

^ lb. currants. 

Sift the flour and rub in | lb. of the butter; make a bay, place in it half of 
the sugar, add the eggs, and then with the ferment, when ready, make all 
up into a smooth dough. Allow the dough to lie until fully proved, then 
divide it in two pieces and pin each out to an oblong shape about 18 in. 
long, 12 in. wide, and | in. thick. Take the remainder of the Method 
butter, which should be quite soft, and brush half of this over of adding 
each piece of the dough; sprinkle on the sugar and the currants, ""^r, c. 
dividing these between the two pieces of dough, and spread them over 
the butter. Fold the dough over as when turning puff* paste; pin it out 
again, finishing at about the same thickness and width; brush over the 
remainder of the butter, wet the edges with egg wash, and carefully roll up 
as for Swiss roll. The rolling up must be carefully done, or else a few 
badly-shaped buns will be the result; brush some clarified butter or lard 
over the dough, and cut it up into pieces scaling at 2| oz. each, about ^ in. 


thick; lay upon greased baking sheets, cut edge down, within | in. of 
each other, and prove in a warm cupboard with very little steam. When 
sufficiently proved, and the pieces of dough are touching, wash over with 

milk, slightly dust with castor sugar, and bake in a hot oven. 

When baked, and while quite hot, dust over with fine pul- 
verized or icing sugar. As these buns are baked close together, care must 
be taken that they are thoroughly done. This is best seen by separating 
some of the outside ones and noting the condition of the sides of some of 
the buns in the centre of the baking sheet. (See Plate, Fermented Buns, 
Nos. 18, 14.) 

Dough Nuts 

Dough nuts belong to the bun class, but are boiled, or rather roasted in 
fat, instead of being baked. We speak of fat boiling, but it does not boil; 
^ , «, the ebullition noticed when it is heated only lasts as lonp- as 

Dough Nuts. .^ . i -n 1 1 , 

it contams any water. J^or dough nuts, then, prepare some 
plain bun dough as already described, and when ready, scale off at 5 oz. per 
pair and hand up. Turn the pieces of dough over upon the board, slightly 
flatten with the hand, place some raspberry jam in the centre, and fold 
each carefully to enclose the jam. Prove these upon a bag or cloth placed 
upon a baking sheet in a warm cupboard without steam. When ready, fry 
them to a light colour in some hot lard, then drain them on a wire tray. 
Ring Roll in some castor sugar. Dough rings may be made from the 

Dough Nuts, same dough, handed up, pinned out, and the centre of each cut 
out with a small plain cutter before proving. Care is necessary when pre- 
paring the lard for frying to ascertain when it is hot enough. To this 
Test for Heat ^nd throw a few drops of cold water on the hot fat; if ready 
of Fat. for frying — that is, if it is hot enough — it will give off a 

crackling noise; if not hot enough, this noise will not be produced, and 
the pieces of dough must not be placed in it. On no account wait until 
smoke is seen to arise from the fat, as this will indicate that 
it is beginning to burn, which will not only give the dough 
nuts a bad colour, but will prevent them growing while cooking to their 
full size; then the fat will be useless for frying a second time on account of 
the bad colour. 

The ring form of dough nut mentioned above is in imitation of the 
American cruller, but this cake is usually made from a dough aerated 
American by soda and cream of tartar. The following mixture produces an 
Crullers. excellent cruller. Into 4 lb. of soft flour sift thoroughly 1 oz. of 
bicarbonate of soda and 2 oz. cream of tartar. Rub into this 8 oz. sweet 
butter or lard and make a bay, into which weigh 8 oz. castor sugar. Make 
a firm but smooth dough with 4 eggs and 1 pint milk. Allow this to 
lie for a little to lose its toughness, then pin out half at a time into a sheet 
about h in. thick and cut out with a ring cutter, or, alternatively, cut the 
outer circumference with a plain cutter about 3 in. in diameter, and then 
with a 1-in. cutter cut out the centres of the larger pieces. 


J^ J& J^ J^ 

The Horse 

Breeding, Training, and Management. Edited by Professor J. Wortley Axe, 
M.R.C.V.S., ex- President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; late Lecturer at the 
Royal Veterinary College, and at the Agricultural Colleges of Downton and Wye; Chief 
Veterinary Inspector to the Surrey County Council ; Consulting Veterinary Surgeon to the 
British Dairy Farmers' Association; author of "The Mare and Foal", "Abortion in Cattle", 
"Anthrax in Farm Stock", "Examination of Horses as to Soundness", "Glanders, its 
Spread and Suppression", "Swine Fever", "Lithotomy, or the Removal of Stone from the 
Bladder of the Horse". Complete in 9 handsomely-bound divisional- volumes. 

The work is divided into over twenty main sections, including Exterior of the Horse, Conformation 
and its Defects, Varieties of the Horse, Principles of Breeding and Management of the Breeding Stud, 
Horse Training for the Course, the Hunt, and the Show; Stable Management and Stable Vices; Exa- 
mination as to Soundness, &c. Each section is virtually a book in itself, dealing exhaustively with 
every phase of its subject, the information in each case being brought down to the month of publication. 

To the owner or responsible custodian of any horse or pony it is absolutely indispensable. 

The New Popular Encyclopedia 

A LIBRARY IN ITSELF. A General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, Biography, 
History, The Practical Arts and Handicrafts, Law, Medicine, Household Matters, Education, 
Music, Games, and Sports. Edited by Charles Annandale, m.a., ll.d.. Editor of 
Ogilvie's " Imperial Dictionary of the English Language". Profusely illustrated. Complete 
in 14 handsome volumes, super- royal octavo, bound in cloth. 

Special attention has been paid to questions that have recently arisen and come under public notice, 
and the latest inventions and discoveries, whether in the fields of science, the arts, or travel, have suitable 
articles devoted to them. In carrying out the work of revision the most recent publications, British and 
foreign, have been consulted; the latest statistics of population, trade, &c., have been sought for; and 
all the most reliable sources of information have been drawn upon. 

Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary 

OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. Ne7u Edition, revised and greatly augmented. 
A Complete Encyclopedic Lexicon, Literary, Etymological, Scientific, Technological, and 
Pronouncing. Edited by Charles Annandale, m.a., ll.d. Illustrated by above 3000 
engravings on wood, besides a splendid series of full -page plates, many of which are 
coloured. Issued in 8 divisional-volumes of a handy size for reference, bound in cloth, 
with a fine design on side; also in 4 volumes, Roxburghe library style. 

The reception accorded by the press and the public to this new edition of the Imperial Dictionary 
shows that it will continue fully to maintain its established position as a standard lexicon of the English 

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Practical Coalmining 

By Leading Experts in Mining and Engineering under the Editorship of W. S. Boulton, 
B.SC., F.G.S., Associate of the Royal College of Science, Member of the South Wales Institute 
of Engineers, Professor of Geology at University College, Cardiff. To be issued in 6 super- 
royal octavo divisional-volumes, bound in cloth. 

This book is virtually an encyclopedia of coal-mining. The geology of the coal-measures, the 
composition and analysis of coal, trial borings and shaft-sinking, blasting, coal-cutting, methods of 
working, timbering, haulage, winding, pumping, ventilation, transmission of power, mine-surveying, 
lighting, explosions, mineral leases, preparation of coal for market, the economics of coal, and relief and 
exploratory work in case of accidents — such is the wide range of its subject-matter. 

Practical Coal-mining is thus a practical work for all concerned in coal-mining. 

The book is profusely illustrated with diagrams. Machinery, structures, implements, details of all 
kinds are carefully pictured. There are also some excellent coloured drawings and black-and-white 
plates of interesting scenes and details connected with coal and coal-working in some of its phases. The 
slates include maps of the great British coal-fields. 

The Gardener's Assistant 

A Practical and Scientific Exposition of the Art of Gardening in all its Branches. By 
Robert Thompson, of the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens, Chiswick, &c. New 
Edition, revised and entirely remodelled under the general Editorship of William Watson, 
F.R.H.S., Curator, Royal Gardens, Kew, with contributions by many eminent specialists. 
With many illustrations in colour and black-and-white. In 6 divisional-volumes, imperial 
octavo, bound in cloth ; also in 2 handsome volumes, Roxburghe library binding. 

As the book covers the whole subject, from the laying out of the ground to the packing of flowers, 
fruits, and vegetables for market, it should be indispensable to gardeners. To country gentlemen it will 
be of the greatest value in giving them an all-round view of both the principles and the practice of 
modem gardening. For all who cultivate flowers, whether in gardens, under glass, or in window- 
boxes, the book will be invaluable. The subject of Floral Decoration, too, receives particular attention. 

Everything has been done that could be done to elucidate the text by the free use of illustrations. 
These represent recent gardening appHances, houses, heating apparatus, flowers, trees, &c. 

The Household Physician 

A Family Guide to the Preservation of Health and the Domestic Treatment of Illness. 
By J. M'Gregor-Robertson, m..^., m.b., cm. (Honours), f.f.p.s.G., f.r.s. (Ed.), formerly 
Lecturer on Physiology in the University of Glasgow. New Edition, igoy. The work is 
issued alternatively in 4 half-volumes, cloth, or in 2 volumes, Roxburghe library binding. 

The aim of The Household Physician is to supply, in as plain language as possible, some know- 
ledge of what Science has to say as to the body which we inhabit, and also to give reliable assistance in 
the domestic treatment of simple ailments. It deals with health, human anatomy, and physiology, 
and then examines the main ailments, their nature and treatment. Much space is given to the subject 
of children's ailments, and to the care of children both in health and disease. Other subjects dealt 
with are general hygiene — embracing foods and feeding, clothing, exercise, climate, health resorts, house 
sanitation— medicines and drugs, first aid, minor surgery, treatment of accidents, sick nursing, 
invalid cookery, and, indeed, all the details that appertain to the care of the sick and the duties of 
the nurse. 

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The World of To=Day 

A Survey of the Lands and Peoples of the Globe as seen in Travel and Commerce. By 
A. R. Hope Moncrieff. Complete in 6 imperial octavo volumes. 

This is a new work which, within comparatively narrow compass, presents a comprehensive survey 
of all the countries of the world. 

Every volume contains much material of the greatest interest at the present time. Thus, in the first 
volume, which deals with Asia, the reader will learn much about China ; of the strange Tibetans, with 
their mechanical religion and their repugnance to foreigners ; of the vast empire which Russia has built 
up in central and northern Asia; of the "hermit kingdom" of Korea; of Manchuria; of the vast 
Indian Empire, with its great variety of races, languages, and religions ; and of Japan, which has suc- 
cessfully claimed a place among the Great Powers. 

There are numerous illustrations in half-tone and four beautiful coloured plates in each volume. 
Each volume also contains a series of carefully-prepared maps in the text, besides large coloured maps. 

By means of a full, well-arranged index the work will be found to supply in large measure the pur- 
poses of a gazetteer. In fact it is at once a description of the world, a dictionary of commerce, an 
atlas, and a gazetteer. 

The British Empire 

An Account of its Origin, Progress, and Present Position. With full descriptions of Canada, 
Australia, South Africa, India, and other Colonies and Dependencies. By Edgar SANDER- 
SON, M.A. (Cantab.), Author of " History of the British Empire", "Outlines of the World's 
History", &c., &c. Beautifully illustrated throughout with full-page drawings by the most 
eminent artists. New Edition. Greatly enlarged, and brought down to the reign of King 
Edward VI I. In 6 volumes, cloth elegant, olivine edges. 

The reader will find a full account of every colony, possession, and dependency where flies the 
Union Jack. The wonderful tale of our progress in the United Kingdom receives full justice and is not 
less interesting, embracing as it does the civil and military history of our country, the reform legislation, 
the foreign policy of Britain, and the chequered history of Ireland. While the narrative deals, for the 
most part, with the nineteenth century, a thoroughly interesting account of Great Britain in the 
eighteenth century is also presented. 

The riodern Plumber and 
Sanitary Engineer 

Treating of Plumbing, Sanitary Work, Ventilation, Heating (Electric and Other), Hot- 
Water Services, Gas-Fitting, Electric Lighting, Bell-Work, Glazing, &c. By sixteen 
specialist contributors under the Editorship of G. Lister Sutcliffe, a.r.i.b.a., m.r.s.i.. 
Editor of " The Principles and Practice of Modern House Construction ", &c. With 
Appendices of Tables, Memoranda, Mensuration, &c. To be completed in 6 super-royal 
octavo volumes, bound in cloth. 

This is a work for the master plumber, the operative plumber, the plumber-electrician, and, in 
fact, for all who are in any way practically concerned in plumbing, sanitary engineering, or any of the 
associated trades ; for all who have to do with the building, sanitation, ventilation, lighting, and heating 
of houses and other edifices. 

The illustrations are a special feature. They include diagrams, half-tone pictures, full-page and 
folding plates, many of the last in colour. There are upwards of 40 plates and iioo illustrations in 
the text. 

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The Practical Grocer 

A Manual and Guide for the Grocer, the Provision Merchant, and Allied Trades. By 
W. H. SiMMONDS. With contributions by specialists, trade experts, and members of the 
trades. Illustrated by a series of separately printed plates. Complete in 4 volumes, cloth. 
Grocery says : " That most excellent manual ... a most useful work ". 

riodern Electric Practice 

Prepared under the Editorship of Magnus Maclean, m.a., Professor of Electrical 
Engineering in the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College, assisted by over thirty 
specialists. Copiously illustrated. Complete in 6 volumes, super-royal octavo, cloth. 
A new and thoroughly up-to-date practical work written by practical men for practical men. 

Modern House=Construction 

Including Water-supply and Fittings, Sanitary Fittings and Plumbing, Drainage and Sewage- 
disposal, Warming, Ventilation, Lighting, Sanitary Aspects of Furniture and Decoration, 
Climate and Situation, Stables, Sanitary Law, &c. Edited by G. LiSTER SUTCLIFFE, 
Architect, Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects, Member of the Sanitary 
Institute. Author of "Concrete: Its Nature and Uses", &c. The Work is printed on 
fine paper, demy quarto, and issued in Six Divisions, strongly bound in cloth ; also in two 
volumes, Roxburghe binding. 

Modern House-Construction is accurate, thorough, and up-to-date, and therefore invaluable to 
professional men engaged in house-construction or house-inspection, including Architects, Civil Engineers 
Sanitary Engineers, Doctors, Medical Officers, Sanitary Inspectors, Building Inspectors, &c. 

The Modern Carpenter, Joiner, 
and Cabinetmaker 

A Complete Guide to Current Practice. Prepared under the editorship of G. LISTER 
SUTCLIFFE, Architect, Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects, Member of 
the Sanitary Institute, Editor and Joint-Author of " Modern House-Construction ", Author 
of "Concrete: Its Nature and Uses", &c. With Contributions from many Specialists. 
Illustrated by a Series of about a hundred separately-printed Plates and a thousand Figures 
in the Text. Complete in 8 divisional-volumes, super-royal quarto, bound in cloth. 

The Modern Carpenter comprises no fewer than sixteen sections. Within the eight divisional- 
volumes of the work we have a treatise on every branch of the craft, distinguished by four outstanding 
qualities. It is (i) complete, (2) clear, (3) practical, and (4) up-to-date. 

The Book of the Home 

An Encyclopedia of all Matters Relating to the House and Household Management. 
Produced under the general Editorship of H. C. Davidson, assisted by over one hundred 
specialists. Copiously illustrated by coloured and black-and-white plates and engravings in 
the text. In 4 volumes, cloth, with artistic design ; also in 8 divisional-volumes, cloth. 
An indispensable ally to the novice and a valuable work of reference to the more experienced. 

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Works of Shakespeare 

Edited by Sir Henry Irving and Frank A. Marshall, with a general Introduction and 

Life of Shakespeare, by Prof. Edward Dowden, and many hundred illustrations from 

drawings by Gordon Browne and other artists. In 14 volumes beautifully bound in cloth. 

The ideal edition of Shakespeare, embodying the result of everything of value done before in the text 

and illustration of our great poet. 

The Qresham Library of 
Standard Fiction 

A Series of 21 Standard Works of Fiction by the most eminent authors, each volume illus- 
trated with six full-page drawings, many containing a biographical sketch of the author and 
a critical estimate of his work. The set of 21 volumes bound in leather back are : Barchester 
Towers, Scenes of Clerical Life, Hajji Baba, After Dark, Ormond, Jane Eyre, The New- 
comes, Westward Ho!, The Caxtons, David Copperfield, The Heart of Midlothian, Pride 
and Prejudice, Harry Lorrequer, The Scarlet Letter and The House with the Seven Gables, 
Lavengro, Cranford and Mary Barton, Framley Parsonage, Tom Burke of "Ours", The 
Mill on the Floss, John Halifax, Gentleman, Coningsby. 

Charles Dickens' Novels 

The Imperial Edition of the Novels of Charles Dickens, in 16 volumes, large square octavo, 
cloth extra, gilt top. The following is a list of the volumes in the Imperial Edition : The 
Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, Martin Chuzzlewit, The Old Curiosity 
Shop, Barnaby Rudge, David Copperfield, Bleak House, Sketches by Boz, Christmas Books, 
Dombey and Son, Little Dorrit, A Tale of Two Cities, Great Expectations, Hard Times and 
Master Humphrey's Clock; Charles Dickens: A Critical Study, by GEORGE GiSSlNG. 

The Choice Library of the 
English Poets 

With Introductions by Alice Meynell, Arthur Symons, Owen Seaman, Alfred Austin, 
and other eminent writers. Beautifully bound in cloth, with frontispiece photogravures, 
24 volumes, in neat box. The volumes are as follows : — Tennyson, Christina Rossetti, 
Milton, Wordsworth, E. B. Browning, Robert Browning, Byron, Shelley, Keats, Burns, 
Coleridge, Cowper, Calverley, Herrick, Longfellow, Whittier, In Memoriam {Tennyson's), 
Arnold, Keble ( The Christian Year), Keble ( The Psalter in English Verse), Herbert, Six- 
teenth Century Anthology, Seventeenth Century Anthology, Eighteenth Century Anthology. 

The Warwick Library of English 

Prepared under the general Editorship of C. H. Herford, Litt.D., Professor of English 
Literature in the Victoria University of Manchester. In 8 uniform volumes. The volumes 
are as follows: — English Lyrics, English Pastorals, English Masques, English Tales in 
Verse, EngHsh Satires, English Literary Criticism, English Essays, English Historians. 

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The Brontes' Works 

The Complete Works of Charlotte Bronte and her Sisters. With many illustrations and 
portraits. This series includes Jane Eyre, Villette, Shirley, The Professor, and Emma, by 
Charlotte Bronte ; Wtithering Heights, by Emily Bronte ; and Agnes Grey, and The Tenant 
of Wildfell Hall, by Anne Bronte ; also the Poems of the three sisters, and Mrs. Gaskell's 
Life of Charlotte Bronte. Complete in 7 volumes, limp lambskin. 

Casquet of Literature 

A Selection in Prose and Poetry from the best authors. Edited, with biographical and 
literary notes, by Charles Gibbon, author of "Robin Gray", and Miss MARY CHRISTIE. 
In 6 volumes, handsomely bound in cloth. 

The Cabinet of Irish Literature 

Selections from the Works of the chief Poets, Orators, and Prose Writers of Ireland. Edited 
by Charles A. Reade, f.r.h.s., and Katharine Tynan Hinkson. In 4 volumes,, 
super-royal octavo, cloth extra, gilt edges. 

In the Land of Burns 

Select Illustrations of the Life and Writings of the Scottish Poet from Paintings by D. O. 
Hill, r.s.a. 24 Engravings, carefully printed on fine paper, imperial 4to (size 15x11 inches), 
accompanied by Descriptive Notes, indicating their association with the life and works of the 
poet. Issued in an artistic portfolio. 

A Popular Family Commentary 

ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. By Rev. ALBERf Barnes, author of "The Life of the 
Apostle Paul", "The Way of Salvation", "The Evidences of Christianity in the Nineteenth 
Century", " Notes" on the Book of Job, on the Psalms, and on the Prophecies of Isaiah and 
Daniel. With 70 finely-engraved illustrations, and a valuable series of maps and plans. 
Complete in 1 1 beautifully-bound volumes in handsome case. 

Encyclopaedia Biblica 

A Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by the Rev. T. K. Cheyne, m.a., d.d.. Oriel Professor 
of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture at Oxford, and formerly Fellow of Balliol College, 
Canon of Rochester ; and J. SUTHERLAND BLACK, M.A., LL.D., formerly assistant Editor of 
" The Encyclopaedia Britannica ". Assisted by many contributors in Great Britain, Europe,, 
and America. Complete in 4 volumes, cloth and half-leather. 

The Qresham Dictionary 

The Gresham Dictionary of the English Language, founded on the great works of NOAH 
Webster, ll.d., and John Ogilvie, ll.d. With 1200 illustrations. In i volume, super- 
royal octavo cloth. Also supplied in Roxburghe binding (library style). 

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The Modern Cyclopedia 

OF UNIVERSAL INFORMATION. Edited by Charles Annandale, m.a., ll.d., 
Editor of " Ogilvie's Imperial Dictionary", &c. New Edition, 1907. With many pictorial 
illustrations and a series of maps and plates. Complete in 8 volumes, square octavo, bound 
in rich cloth, coloured edges, or in fine leather binding (library style). 

The Natural History of Plants 

Their Forms, Growth^ Reproduction, and Distribution. From the German of the Late 
Anton Kerner Von Marilaun, Professor of Botany in the University of Vienna. By F. 
W. Oliver, m.a., d.Sc, Quain Professor of Botany in University College, London, with 
the assistance of Lady Busk, b.Sc., and Mrs, M. F. Macdonald, b.Sc. With about 2000 
■original woodcut illustrations. Complete in 2 handsome volumes. 

The Natural History of Animals 

The Animal Life of the World in its various Aspects and Relations. By J. R. AiNSWORTH 
Davis, m.a., of Trinity College, Cambridge, and of University College, Aberystwyth. Pro- 
fusely illustrated with full-page colour and black-and-white plates, and engravings in the text 
by eminent animal artists. Complete in 8 half-volumes or in 4 volumes, cloth extra. 

Comprehensive History of England 

Civil and Military, Religious, Intellectual, and Social. From the Earliest Period to the 
Present Time. Illustrated by above 11 00 engravings in the text, 65 finely engraved plates, 
and many excellent separate page engravings, including portraits of sovereigns, pictures of 
important historical events, &c. Complete in 4 volumes, super-royal octavo, cloth. 

A History of the Scottish People 

From the Earliest to the Latest Times. By Rev. Thomas Thomson and Charles 
Annandale, m.a., ll.d. Illustrated by W. H. Margetson, Walter Paget, Gordon 
Browne, and other eminent artists. In 6 divisional-volumes, cloth elegant. 

Gladstone and his Contemporaries 

Seventy Years of Social and Political Progress. By Thomas Archer, f.r.h.s. Revised 
and extended to date by Alfred Thomas Story, author of "Life of John Linnell", "The 
Building of the Empire", &c. Illustrated. In 4 volumes, super-royal octavo, cloth. 

Queen Victoria 

HER LIFE AND REIGN. By Thomas Archer, f.r.h.s., author of "Sixty Years of 
Social and Political Progress", &c., and Amelia Hutchison Stirling, m.a., Examiner 
in History in the University of St. Andrews, author of "Torch-Bearers of History", &c. 
With many highly-finished illustrations. In 4 volumes, cloth extra. 

Mr. Chamberlain 

His Life and Public Career. By S. H. Jeves. Profusely illustrated with portraits, views, 
and illustrations of notable events. Complete in 2 volumes, cloth, gilt top. 

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The Home Teacher 

A Cyclopedia of Self-Instruction. Edited by Samuel Neil, author of " Culture and Self- 
Culture ", " Art of Reasoning "; Editor of " The Cyclopedia of History ", &c., &c. Copiously 
illustrated with full-page plates and engravings in the text. In 5 volumes, cloth. 

Modern Practical Farriery 

A Complete Guide to all that Relates to the Horse. Its History, Varieties, and Uses — 
Breaking, Training, Feeding, Stabling, and Grooming — How to Buy, Keep, and Treat a 
Horse in Health and Disease, &c., &c., forming a complete system of the Veterinary 
Art as at present practised at the Royal Veterinary College, London. By W. J. Miles, 
M.R.C.V.S.L. Including Practical Treatises on " Cattle : their Management in Dairy, Field, 
and Stall ", by John Walker ; " Pasture-Grasses and Forage Plants ", by Samuel P. 
Preston; "The Practice of Sheep Farming", by Charles Scott ; "The Diseases and 
Treatment of Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs ", by J. I. LuPTON, M.R.C.v.s.L. In i volume, bound 
in cloth, or in half-calf. 

The Modern Practical Farriery has long been accepted as the standard work on its subject. 

Agriculturist's Calculator 

A Series of 46 Tables for Land Measuring, Draining, Manuring, Planting, Weight of Hay 
and Cattle by Measurement, Building, &c., forming a complete ready-reckoner for all 
engaged in agriculture. Sixteenth thousand. Bound. 

Engineers' flanual 

Of Rules, Tables, and Data, based on the most recent investigations. By Daniel Kinnear 
Clark, author of " Railway Machinery", &c. With many diagrams. Fifth edition. Large 
octavo (1000 pp.), cloth, or half-morocco. 

Peddie's Practical fleasurer 

of Wood Merchants, Builders, Carpenters, &c. With a Treatise on the Mensuration of 
Superficies and Solids. Illustrated with diagrams and examples. Foolscap octavo, bound. 

The Practical Decorator 

AND ORNAMENTIST. For the use of Architects, Painters, Decorators, and Designers. 
Containing 100 plates in colours and gold. With Descriptive Notices, and an Introductory 
Essay on Artistic and Practical Decoration. By GEORGE ASHDOWN Audsley, LL.D., 
F.R.I. B.A., author of several works on architecture and decorative art, and MAURICE 
ASHDOWN AUDSLEY, Architect. Folio (i6i by 11 J inches). In cloth portfolio, complete. 

Decoration and Ornament 

Suggestions in Design. A Comprehensive Series of Original Sketches in Various Styles 
of Ornament, arranged for application in the Decorative and Constructive Arts. By John 
Leighton, f.S.A. Accompanied by Descriptive and Historical Letterpress, with above 
300 explanatory engravings, by J. K. Colling, f.r.i.b.a. One volume. 

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Kirkland, John 

The modem baker, 
confectioner and caterer